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Colligative Properties and Ice Cream

Objectives

  • To record facile and fast data collection from the computer interface, ubiquitous in industry and, in this case, to calculate the molecular weight of the unknown solute using freezing point depression
  • To learn the definition of molality and the importance of molality in colligative property calculations
  • To learn to calculate the molality of a solution
  • To measure the freezing point depression caused when adding antifreeze to tert-butanol
  • To calculate the molecular weight of the unknown solute using freezing point depression

Grading

You will be determined according to the following:

  • Pre-lab (10%)
  • Lab Report Form (80%) – including temperature plots
  • TA evaluation of lab procedure (10%)

Introduction

Although colligative properties involve solutions, they do not depend on the interactions between the solvent and the solute molecules but rather on the number of solute particles dissolved in solution. Colligative properties include vapor pressure lowering, osmotic pressure, boiling point elevation, and freezing point depression. In this experiment you will explore freezing point depression using a solution of ethylene glycol in tert-butanol. You will then use freezing point depression to calculate the molar mass of an unknown solute that is dissolved in tert-butanol.

Ethylene glycol, (CH2OH)2 the major component of antifreeze, is a large organic molecule that dissolves easily in water. The structure of ethylene glycol is shown in Figure 1.

Antifreeze keeps the water in a car's radiator from freezing because the ethylene glycol molecules get in the way when water tries to crystallize into ice. It is more difficult for the ice crystals to form, due to the fact that the water must be at a lower kinetic energy. Therefore, the water freezes at a lower temperature than if the glycol molecules were not present. The effect of the ethylene glycol molecules present in a solutioncan be quantified by the following equation:

ΔT = iKfm Equation 1

where Δ T = Tpure - Tsolution, the difference between the freezing temperature of the pure solute and the freezing temperature of the solution. Kf is the freezing point depression constant of the solvent, having units of °C/m, and m is concentration of the solution using units of molality. This equation reflects the fact that a more concentrated solution results in a greater change in freezing temperature.

Most of the previous work that we have done with solutions probably has involved units of molarity, or moles per liter of solution. Freezing point depression calculations (as well as those for boiling point elevation) use molality, or moles of solute per kilogram of solvent. By definition, a freezing point depression or boiling point elevation involves a change in temperature. When the temperature of a solution changes, its volume also changes. Since molarity depends on the volume of the solution, a change in temperature will change the solution's molarity. Molality depends on the mass of the solvent, and this does not change with temperature.

Questions & Answers

what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
How can I make nanorobot?
Lily
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
how can I make nanorobot?
Lily
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
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Source:  OpenStax, General chemistry lab spring. OpenStax CNX. Apr 03, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10506/1.56
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