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Natural sciences

Grade 9

The earth ,galaxies and space programmes

Module 17

Space programme

  • The space era for man began on 4 October 1957 with the launch of Sputnik I by the former Soviet Union.
  • It consisted of a hollow metal ball that weighed only 84 kg and contained a radio transmitter and a thermometer.
  • Today there is a launch of some kind of space craft almost every week.
  • Konstantin Tsoilkovsky (1857-1935) was a teacher of mathematics who realised the possibilities of rockets, space stations and satellites a long time ago.
  • With their Apollo missions the Americans made it possible for humans to walk on the moon. This happened on 20 July 1969 with the Apollo 11 mission. Neil Armstrong’s words “One small step for man, one giant leap for mankind” are well known.
  • Analyses and measurements of rock fragments have shed more light on our knowledge of our own moon.
  • The “Near Shoemaker” mission, made it possible for the Americans to land a spacecraft successfully on Eros a large comet fragment. This resembles the dramatic representation in the film “Deep Impact”).
  • The US space shuttles have heralded a new era of technology with regard to computer programs, special metals and materials, satellite launches and much more.
  • There have also been major disasters in the endeavours to master space. To date, two American space shuttles have exploded - first Challenger in January 1986 (during launching) and recently Columbia on 1 February 2003. Columbia was the oldest shuttle and was on its 28 th flight. It was the 113 th shuttle flight and the first tragedy during a landing procedure.
  • The South African Internet tycoon, Mark Shuttleworth , made headlines on 25 April 2002 by being the first person from Africa to travel in space.
  • Thousands of South Africans and others visited his website daily and devoured the articles and news from space.
  • His mission was to perform experiments on the International Space Station (ISS) and to gain valuable experience at the same time.
  • Here is a brief summary of the mission:

African in Space

  • On 25 April the Sojoes TM34 rocket was launched from the Russion space centre at Baikonoer in Kazachstan. On board were Mark, Joeri Gidzenko and the Italian Roberto Vittori.
  • After a successful journey the shuttle reached the International Space Station (ISS) 2 days later.
  • Mark and his companions spent 8 days on board the ISS and were watched by thousands of South Africans as the ISS crossed the country.
  • Mark performed a number of important experiments on behalf of leading scientists and in this way obtained important research results and information.
  • The team left the ISS on 5 May 2002 and returned to earth in a TM 33 Sojoes space craft.
  • Mark and his companions landed the shuttle safely, its speed was slowed down by means of a parachute once it had entered the atmosphere and landed the space craft safely.

Activity: Mini-essay

Visit www.africaninspace.com and write a mini-essay on the value of the experiments in which Mark was involved in space.

Assessment of MINI-ESSAY:

Do you realise the value of man’s discoveries and the value of the earth’s sustainable resources? Do you appreciate all of these endeavours?

Questions & Answers

Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
hi
Loga
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Natural sciences grade 9. OpenStax CNX. Sep 15, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11069/1.1
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