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Social sciences


Grade 8

Land and power

Module 6

The industrial revolution : agriculture

Urbanisation, an increase in population and a rise in the living standards of people followed on the improvements in transport and roads. One of the challenges faced by the agricultural industry was to provide more and better food to the growing population.

Robert Bakewell farmed with sheep and cattle in Dishley in the Leicester district. He realised that meat production would be sufficient only if the quantity and the quality thereof could be improved. The animals had to be ready for the market sooner and satisfied buyers would ensure the best market prices. The most popular wool sheep at this stage were skinny, long-legged sheep that could survive on little food.

Bakewell began experimenting and soon bred a sheep with a large carcass and very good meat that was ready for the market within two years. This breed, known as the New Leicester , was therefore double as profitable as the previous sheep breed, which was only ready for the market after three to four years. Bakewell was one of the first farmers to realise the value of the scientific and control

led irrigation of crops. This research was necessary because meat production was now becoming more important than trade in wool or sheepskins. Bakewell’s experimentation with sheep breeds therefore led to research on animal feed. In his cattle breeding efforts, he also concentrated on properties such as quality and quantity with regard to meat production. His experiments were extended further to a smaller cart-horse, which was more useful than the larger animals.

  • Look at the following DIAGRAM of meat production offered for sale at the Smithfield market .
  • 1710
  • 1795
  • Mutton
  • 12 kg
  • 35 kg
  • Beef
  • 150 kg
  • 360 kg
  • Study the diagram on the previous page and answer the following questions:

1. Did the production of mutton increase? Provide proof for your answer.

2. Did mutton production increase more than beef production? Provide proof for your answer.

Provide proof for your answer.

3. Can you deduct from the information provided in the diagram that the people in Britain liked beef more than mutton? Provide at least ONE reason for your answer.

[LO 1.3]

What is taking place in scientific research and experimentation in the field of agriculture today?

What is cloning?

This is a product of biotechnology, by which cells or an entire animal are produced by making use of the DNA of one parent, without following the normal processes of birth and/or growth. The clone has the same DNA as the parent.

Is cloning unnatural?

No, clones are often produced naturally, such as in the case of identical twins.

Does the cloning process work each time?

No, the sheep Dolly was the first successful incidence of mammal reproduction. Dolly was produced from a normal adult cell, in this case taken from the udder of a ewe. More than 200 attempts to make Dolly were unsuccessful.

Are clones normal, healthy animals?

Goats, sheep, cows and mice have already been cloned. Dolly appears to be healthy, but scientists suspect that health problems and early ageing can take place in the cloned animals.

Where can one obtain more information about the latest technology?

Information on any news originating from the BBC can be obtained on the Internet if you have missed the newspaper article or international TV news broadcasts. The above information is available on the general BBC News Web page. Look for:

“BBC News Website”, under “Sci/Tech”, then keep on looking until you find the specific information you need!


Learning outcomes(LOs)

LO 1

Historical Enquiry

The learner will be able to use enquiry skills to investigate the past and present.

Assessment standards(ASs)

We know this when the learner:

1.1 continues to identify and select a variety of historical and archaeological sources relevant to an inquiry [finds sources];

1.2 evaluates the sources used (e.g. “Who created the source?”, “Is it reliable”, “How useful is the information?”) [works with sources];

1.3 interprets graphical and statistical sources [works with sources];

1.4 presents an original idea as part of an answer to questions posed [answers the question];

1.5 communicates knowledge and understanding by constructing own interpretation and argument based on the historical sources (including extended writing, artwork, graphics and drama); uses information technology where available and appropriate [communicates the answer].

Learning outcomes(LOs)

LO 2

Historical Knowledge and Understanding

The learner will be able to demonstrate historical knowledge and understanding.

Assessment standards(ASs)

We know this when the learner:

2.1 begins to make links between historical events and processes in different contexts in the same period [chronology and time];

2.2 recognises that causes and effects of effects vary in importance [cause and effect];

2.3 explains charges in a wider historical and environmental context [change and continuity].

LO 3

Historical Interpretation

The learner will be able to interpret aspects of history.

We know this when the learner:

3.1 examines historical interpretation by asking relevant questions about the author of an historical source [source interpretation];

3.2 identifies and gives reasons for the different ways that the past is represented and interpreted [source interpretation];

3.3 explains why history is not objective or neutral [source interpretation];

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
yes that's correct
I think
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
nanocopper obvius
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
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Source:  OpenStax, History grade 8. OpenStax CNX. Sep 12, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11044/1.1
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