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Social sciences


Grade 8

Land and power

Module 6

The industrial revolution : agriculture

Urbanisation, an increase in population and a rise in the living standards of people followed on the improvements in transport and roads. One of the challenges faced by the agricultural industry was to provide more and better food to the growing population.

Robert Bakewell farmed with sheep and cattle in Dishley in the Leicester district. He realised that meat production would be sufficient only if the quantity and the quality thereof could be improved. The animals had to be ready for the market sooner and satisfied buyers would ensure the best market prices. The most popular wool sheep at this stage were skinny, long-legged sheep that could survive on little food.

Bakewell began experimenting and soon bred a sheep with a large carcass and very good meat that was ready for the market within two years. This breed, known as the New Leicester , was therefore double as profitable as the previous sheep breed, which was only ready for the market after three to four years. Bakewell was one of the first farmers to realise the value of the scientific and control

led irrigation of crops. This research was necessary because meat production was now becoming more important than trade in wool or sheepskins. Bakewell’s experimentation with sheep breeds therefore led to research on animal feed. In his cattle breeding efforts, he also concentrated on properties such as quality and quantity with regard to meat production. His experiments were extended further to a smaller cart-horse, which was more useful than the larger animals.

  • Look at the following DIAGRAM of meat production offered for sale at the Smithfield market .
  • 1710
  • 1795
  • Mutton
  • 12 kg
  • 35 kg
  • Beef
  • 150 kg
  • 360 kg
  • Study the diagram on the previous page and answer the following questions:

1. Did the production of mutton increase? Provide proof for your answer.

2. Did mutton production increase more than beef production? Provide proof for your answer.

Provide proof for your answer.

3. Can you deduct from the information provided in the diagram that the people in Britain liked beef more than mutton? Provide at least ONE reason for your answer.

[LO 1.3]

What is taking place in scientific research and experimentation in the field of agriculture today?

What is cloning?

This is a product of biotechnology, by which cells or an entire animal are produced by making use of the DNA of one parent, without following the normal processes of birth and/or growth. The clone has the same DNA as the parent.

Is cloning unnatural?

No, clones are often produced naturally, such as in the case of identical twins.

Does the cloning process work each time?

No, the sheep Dolly was the first successful incidence of mammal reproduction. Dolly was produced from a normal adult cell, in this case taken from the udder of a ewe. More than 200 attempts to make Dolly were unsuccessful.

Are clones normal, healthy animals?

Goats, sheep, cows and mice have already been cloned. Dolly appears to be healthy, but scientists suspect that health problems and early ageing can take place in the cloned animals.

Where can one obtain more information about the latest technology?

Information on any news originating from the BBC can be obtained on the Internet if you have missed the newspaper article or international TV news broadcasts. The above information is available on the general BBC News Web page. Look for:

“BBC News Website”, under “Sci/Tech”, then keep on looking until you find the specific information you need!


Learning outcomes(LOs)

LO 1

Historical Enquiry

The learner will be able to use enquiry skills to investigate the past and present.

Assessment standards(ASs)

We know this when the learner:

1.1 continues to identify and select a variety of historical and archaeological sources relevant to an inquiry [finds sources];

1.2 evaluates the sources used (e.g. “Who created the source?”, “Is it reliable”, “How useful is the information?”) [works with sources];

1.3 interprets graphical and statistical sources [works with sources];

1.4 presents an original idea as part of an answer to questions posed [answers the question];

1.5 communicates knowledge and understanding by constructing own interpretation and argument based on the historical sources (including extended writing, artwork, graphics and drama); uses information technology where available and appropriate [communicates the answer].

Learning outcomes(LOs)

LO 2

Historical Knowledge and Understanding

The learner will be able to demonstrate historical knowledge and understanding.

Assessment standards(ASs)

We know this when the learner:

2.1 begins to make links between historical events and processes in different contexts in the same period [chronology and time];

2.2 recognises that causes and effects of effects vary in importance [cause and effect];

2.3 explains charges in a wider historical and environmental context [change and continuity].

LO 3

Historical Interpretation

The learner will be able to interpret aspects of history.

We know this when the learner:

3.1 examines historical interpretation by asking relevant questions about the author of an historical source [source interpretation];

3.2 identifies and gives reasons for the different ways that the past is represented and interpreted [source interpretation];

3.3 explains why history is not objective or neutral [source interpretation];

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, History grade 8. OpenStax CNX. Sep 12, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11044/1.1
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