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Grade 8


Module 4

The basics of sketching

Activity 1

The basics of sketching

Focus task 1

Although we quite readily use the excuse that we “cannot draw”, it is useful to remember that sketches were used in prehistoric times, even before people learnt how to write. It may be true that some people have greater artistic ability than others when it comes to drawing, but even the greatest artists did not just begin to make art. You are also able to develop your drawing skill and it is important to do this by practising methods that will help you to make good sketches. Bear in mind that sketches are free-hand drawings.

Some guidelines:

  • Use a soft pencil, e.g. HB
  • Grasp the pencil between your fingers, about 20 mm from its tip.
  • Do not rest your hand on the paper while you draw (do free-hand drawing)
  • Hold the pencil at an angle so that you are able to see its point.
  • Be relaxed about what you are doing.

Try the following steps:

  1. Draw a number of parallel lines, vertically, horizontally and diagonally. Try to focus on the point towards which you are drawing the lines, and keep your wrist from bending.
  1. Once you feel at ease with drawing parallel lines, you may start drawing horizontal and vertical lines to form right angles (90 degree angles).
  1. When you are able to draw these right angles confidently, you are ready for the next step: drawing squares. Squares and rectangles are commonly used to frame other objects that are sketched.
  1. If you have to draw a circle, it may be useful to sketch a square – lightly. The sides should be equal to the diameter of the circle that is required. By marking the centres of the four sides you will identify the points of contact of the circle.
  1. When you need to draw an elliptical shape, you may start by drawing a rectangle to guide you.

LO 2.1


LO 2
TECHNOLOGICAL KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING The learner will be able to understand and apply relevant technological knowledge ethically and responsibly.
This is demonstrated when the learner:
structures:2.1 demonstrate knowledge and understanding of frame structures:
  • the use and application of basic structural components (columns, beams, arches, buttresses, struts, stays, guys, ties);
  • reinforcing techniques for frame structures (triangulation, webs and fillets, orientation and cross-sectional area and members);
  • how frame structures can be made strong (e.g. relationship between the size and the shape of the base, the centre of gravity and stability;
processing:2.2 demonstrates a knowledge and understanding of how materials can be processed to change or improve their properties by adapting them to suit particular purposes:
  • to withstand forces (tension, compression, bending, torsion, shear);
  • to increase strengths or life-span;
  • how specific properties suitable for packaging can be achieved.



  1. The learners must draw lines by linking dots. An additional suggestion: work from both dots for lines to meet in the middle (By doing this, it is less likely that the line will miss the dot).

2. and 3. Suggest that learners practise drawing straight freehand lines on loose sheets of paper.

4. and 5. Bear in mind that these are freehand sketches. Adequate opportunity for practising freehand drawing on loose paper is therefore important. Also encourage learners to practise in context, e.g. by drawing the wheels of a vehicle, etc.

Questions & Answers

anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Technology grade 8. OpenStax CNX. Sep 13, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11052/1.1
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