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Social sciences

Grade 8

Geography: settlements

Module 4


1. The migration of people to new surroundings

You have already become acquainted with the migration of people from the countryside to the city. Migration, however, does not only take place from rural to urban areas. People move from one urban area to another, and also from one country to another.

Migration from the place where you have been living for many years, e.g. from Cape Town to a new city, e.g. London, is known as EMIGRATION .

Migration to a place where you have found a new home, is called IMMIGRATION. e.g. to London.

Migration is a permanent relocation to a new environment or place.

R easons for migration

There are various reasons why people move from one place the other. These factors can usually be divided into two categories, namely:

Push factors – factors that encourage people to leave a specific area.

Pull factors – factors that entice people to settle in a specific area.

Activity 1:

To obtain information about migration

[lo 1.2]

Collect information about people who migrate to other countries and answer the questions that follow:

1. What circumstances in South Africa do you think made people decide to take such a step?

2. What influence will this tendency have on the South African economy if highly schooled workers are to leave the country in large numbers?

2. Factors that promote migration

2.1 Push factors

Push factors play an important role as a reason for migration. Push factors can mainly be divided into three categories:

a) Political factors: political factors play a role where people immigrate due to pressure or persecution experienced in their land of birth. During the years of Apartheid many black South Africans left the country and went to live elsewhere, e.g. in England and Europe due to political pressure and persecution that they suffered here, as well as the lack of educational opportunities.

b) Economic factors: economic factors play a role when the economic system of a country is not favourable, causing people to leave for another country where they can enjoy a better life. Many people have moved to the USA and England where better working conditions are available.

c) Environmental factors: people also leave their homes because of an unfavourable physical environment. Too much or too little water may be a serious hazard for the environment. People are forced to move because they live on the flood plains of a river. During a flood their properties and lives are threatened by the water masses.

Activity 2:

To communicate personal experiences in writing

[lo 1.5]

On your own

You are a migrant worker who helps to harvest fruit in the Cape. You work on as farm near Worcester. Write a letter to your family living in Kimberley, describing the difficult living and working conditions you experience.

P olitical push factors

People are often obliged to leave their country due to persecution or threats to their lives because of their political ideas. These refugees must then find themselves

another place to live. They cannot return to their country, because their lives are in danger.

Questions & Answers

What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Berger describes sociologists as concerned with
Mueller Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Geography grade 8. OpenStax CNX. Sep 11, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11036/1.1
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