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Economic and management sciences

Grade 6

The economic cycle

Module 3

The law of our country and the economy

The country’s set of rules (laws) that has been compiled to define and protect the rights and duties of every citizen also includes a budget that sets out how the government generates money, and how this money will be spent.

Tax is one of a government’s main sources of income. There are two main categories of tax that our government recovers from its citizens.

Indirect tax

Here are some examples:

VAT - Value added tax is levied on almost all goods and services. For example, when you buy new clothes, you pay 14% more than the original price. This 14% goes to the government. It is usually included in the price, so that the buyer does not have to make the calculation himself.

Tax on fuel – a portion of the money you pay for fuel per litre, is given to the government.

Direct tax

People in the labour market who earn an income (in 2005 it amounts to R30 000 per year for persons under 65 and R59 990 per year for persons over 65) are liable to pay income tax according to the pay-as-you-earn system. The percentage depends on the income you earn and is calculated according to tax scales, and is deducted from your salary every month. Once a year everybody earning a certain income and higher, must complete a set of forms in which they have to declare all forms of income.


Calculate the VAT on the following items:

a bicycle of R860

a pencil of R4,95

a loaf of white bread of R5,25

Find out whether tax is paid on the following items and explain why:

  • brown bread;
  • bananas;
  • full cream milk.

[LO 1.4]

! We trust that you now know a little more about your specific role in the economic cycle and how the government is involved in the entire economic process. With this in mind, try to imagine yourself in 10 years’ time and write a brief paragraph on your possible choice of career and working conditions as you see yourself ten years from now.


Learning Outcomes(LOs)
LO 1
THE ECONOMIC CYCLEThe learner is able to demonstrate knowledge and understanding of the economic cycle within the context of the economic problem.
Assessment Standards(ASs)
We know this when the learner:
1.1 describes the roles of households, businesses and government in the economic cycle;
1.4 explains different types of taxes and how they influence consumers and businesses.
LO 2
SUSTAINABLE GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENTThe learner will be able to demonstrate an understanding of sustainable growth, reconstruction and development, and to reflect on related processes.
We know this when the learner:
2.3 identifies steps that can be taken by the government to redress historic imbalances and poverty (e.g. redistribution of resources, gender equity, capacity building, restoring people’s dignity, creating opportunity and empowerment).

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Economic and management sciences grade 6. OpenStax CNX. Sep 08, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11013/1.1
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