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Economic and management sciences

Grade 6

From tree to tin can

Module 5

The manufacturer or producer

Farmers provide the Raw materials that originate from a natural resource, namely a tree or other plant, and this is processed to become the eventual product. The air, water, soil and minerals are further examples of NATURAL RESOURCES . The raw materials are provided to the manufacturer who processes them in factories and through industries . it is very important that we do not pollute the natural environment.

It is important that the farmer sells his raw materials at a basic price that is sufficient to cover his costs and ensure him of a reasonable profit, but low enough to ensure that he will be able to sell his wares. What may be the right price today may be altogether inappropriate tomorrow because of changing market conditions.

The farmer therefore has to analyse his cost structures very carefully, so that his expenditure, i.e. his production costs (wages for workers, fertiliser, water, transport to the factory, etc.), does not exceed his income.

What is cost structure?

This is the planning that ensures that the selling price of an article includes all costs, and makes provision for profit. This is the only way in which to do business in the long term and avoid bankruptcy.

Background
There are two main types of farmers, namely commercial farmers and subsistence (self-supporting) farmers. A commercial farmer sells everything that he cultivates and pays his workers for the different tasks that they do for him. He therefore makes money through his business and provides goods and services to other people. Subsistence farmers only produce enough and keep enough animals to meet their and their family’s needs. Each person on the farm is responsible for particular jobs and does not necessarily earn any money for what is done.

Assignment 1

Complete the following table to indicate the difference between commercial and subsistence farmers.

Subsistence farming Commercial farming
  1. Small farm.
Supplies food to a large number of people.
Provides work to many people.
  1. Keeps produce for own use.
Supply of water.
  1. Uses primitive implements.

[LO 2.1]

A producer needs materials , labour , capital (money for equipment and buildings), and entrepreneurship for manufacturing commodities. These are the four factors of production.

What is materials?

People need materials to be able to produce goods. These materials could be raw materials (apples, eggs, minerals), half-finished materials (the silk from a silkworm that is wound on a reel, but not woven into a textile yet) or finished materials (processed raw materials made into clothing material from which something, e.g. a garment, can be made).

All manufacturers also need energy, which is obtained from raw materials like wood, coal, water, etc.

What is labour?

Human labour is necessary for the production of goods/commodities or for rendering services. People do not necessarily have to do physical work. Highly skilled and trained people also provide intellectual labour. Some products are extremely labour intensive (need many workers), while others need much less labour. The knowledge and skills that make it possible for people to manufacture products or provide services are known as human resources . The remuneration that a worker receives in exchange for his / her labour is known as wages or a salary .

What is capital?

This is the money that is required for buying buildings, equipment, tools and machinery. A producer needs capital to manufacture goods or for rendering services. The remuneration received by the owner of the capital from the people who use it, is called INTEREST .

What is entrepreneurship?

Good planning, management, decision-making and the willingness to take risks, are characteristics of an entrepreneur. He brings the materials, capital and labour together and changes it into a business. The remuneration received by the entrepreneur is called PROFIT .

Assignment 2

A tomato farmer delivers fresh tomatoes to local supermarkets, shops and cafés. Different people and things are involved with the provision of the tomatoes.

Place each of these under the correct factor of production ( tomatoes, farm workers, farmer, bank loan, packers, store, tractor and trailer, plastic bags, sorting table ).

Materials Labour Capital Entrepreneurship

[LO 2.1]

If the farmer decides to deliver the tomatoes to a factory where it will be processed by canning, we say that the raw material is being changed into a final product. This process is called PRODUCTION. Production is therefore the conversion of raw materials into useful goods and/or services.

There are three types of industry, namely primary, secondary and tertiary industries.

Assessment

Learning Outcomes(LOs)
LO 1
THE ECONOMIC CYCLEThe learner is able to demonstrate knowledge and understanding of the economic cycle within the context of the economic problem.
Assessment Standards(ASs)
We know this when the learner :
1.1 describes the roles of households, businesses and government in the economic cycle;
1.2 compares the rights and responsibilities of each of the participants in the production and consumption of resources and services.
LO 2
SUSTAINABLE GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENTThe learner will be able to demonstrate an understanding of sustainable growth, reconstruction and development, and to reflect on related processes.
We know this when the learner :
2.1 researches and analyses standards of living and patterns of consumption in modern societies where people specialise and trade to satisfy needs and wants.

Memorandum

Assignment 1

  • The differences between subsistence farming and commercial farming can be brought to the attention of the learners through a class discussion.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Economic and management sciences grade 6. OpenStax CNX. Sep 08, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11013/1.1
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