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Geography

Grade 5

Resources

Module 21

Resources and wealth

  • Research has shown that Gauteng is the wealthiest province in South Africa, with KwaZulu-Natal coming second. The Western Cape comes third. The wealth of a town / province / country is measured by the total amount of money that all the factories, mines and business enterprises earn when their products are sold. If we take another look at the map on page 7, which shows the distribution of minerals in South Africa, it is easy to understand why Gauteng and KwaZulu-Natal are first and second. Almost all of the mineral wealth of our country is concentrated in these two provinces.

What does the Western Cape have in the place of mineral wealth?

What makes it wealthy?

  1. Fertile soil and regular winter rains make agriculture the single largest source of income for the province.
  2. People working in many factories process natural resources from their own environment, from other provinces and from abroad.
  3. Tourism is another important source of income. It is the beaches, the natural beauty and the cultural treasures of Cape Town and its surroundings that attract both South African and foreign tourists to the Western Cape.
  4. Resources can only be utilised if there are people to do it. Ninety-four percent of the people of the Western Cape are literate. This means that they can easily be trained to do new / different work. (In Gauteng, 92% of the people are literate and in the Eastern Cape 72% are.) The well-trained people of the Western Cape therefore form a fourth important resource.

It is very advantageous for a country if its products can be exported to other countries. Most agricultural products, especially fruit and processed fruit, are exported, as well as many other products that are manufactured in factories.

Many tourists also come from abroad. One could say that the Western Cape “exports its natural beauty”.

Activity 1:

To market my town as a tourist attraction

[lo 1.7]

Collect pamphlets, news reports and photos of interesting things in your environment.

Do research on the tourist attractions of your town or area and write a brief information sheet that can be given to prospective visitors or tourists.

Draw a simple sketch map of the route to the attractions in your town. (Remember what you have learnt about map work and apply that knowledge now.)

Group work

What can be done to improve tourism to your town or area? Try to make three suggestions.

The ten main export industries of the Western Cape (year 2000)

(R million) Percentage
Fresh fruit 2 240 15,25
Wine and spirits 1 600 10,00
Fish 1 300 8,18
Iron and steel products 1 100 6,88
Processed fruit and vegetables (e.g. fruit juice) 1 020 6,38
Explosives and related products 720 4,50
Jewellery and processed semi-precious stones 430 2,69
Clothing 410 2,56
Leather and leather products 400 2,50
Textiles 390 2,44
The rest: is a large number of smaller categories ** 6 190 38,67
Total 16 000 100,00

** Among the smaller categories of products are boats, plastic goods, electronic equipment, furniture, meat and chemicals.

Let’s examine the list of export products:

What percentage of products from the Western Cape is derived directly or indirectly from the fruit industry?_________________________%

Underline the correct answer: The main reason for the high percentage of income from fruit can be found in (the climate / imported resources).

Agriculture as an important employer

Agriculture is very important as a provider of work in the Western Cape. Approximately 163 000 people are employed on farms. Together, they earn about R 180 million per month, while supporting about 700 000 dependants. Agriculture also provides a large amount of produce to factories where it is processed. This provides further job opportunities. There are many factories in which equipment and other aids for farming are produced. This also provides more work.

Unfortunately developments in agricultural technology also exact a toll. Because more machines are used in production, about 5 000 jobs on farms have been lost between 1997 and 2001.

Activity 2:

To investigate the social problems that result from unemployment

[lo 1.6; 2.2]

Form groups for discussing the social problems that stem from unemployment. Also try to collect news reports on this issue and discuss them in class. Then write a short paragraph on this problem.

Make suggestions for solutions to the problems of unemployed people.

Assessment

LO 1

GEOGRAPHICAL ENQUIRY

The learner will be able to use enquiry skills to investigate geographical and environmental concepts and processes.

We know this when the learner:

1.1 with guidance, selects and uses sources of useful geographical information [finds sources];

1.2 distinguishes between facts and opinions [works with sources];

1.3 categorises information [works with sources];

1.4 uses an index to find places on global atlas maps [works with sources];

1.6 identifies and explores possible solutions to problems [answers the question];

1.7 demonstrates knowledge and under-standing of the issue through projects, discussion, debate and charts [communicates the answer].

LO 2

GEOGRAPHICAL KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING

The learner will be able to demonstrate geographical and environmental knowledge and understanding.

We know this when the learner:

2.2 identifies links between natural resources and economic activities in South Africa [people and resources];

2.3 describes ways in which the physical environment influences human activity and how human activity is influenced by the physical environment [people and the environment

Memorandum

ACTIVITY 1

EXPORT PRODUCTS:

  • 31,63%
  • Climate

ACTIVITY 2

  • Gangster activities – drugs, theft, violence
  • Frustration – family violence

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Source:  OpenStax, Social sciences: geography grade 5. OpenStax CNX. Sep 23, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10986/1.2
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