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Geography

Grade 5

Resources

Module 18

Natural resources: minerals

Minerals as a natural resource

South Africa has large deposits of minerals like gold, iron, coal, platinum and diamonds. The map on the next page shows that these South African minerals are concentrated in the north-eastern part of the country. Coal and gold make up a large proportion of our country's mineral wealth.

Minerals in South Africa

Some of these minerals are mined at the surface (diamonds), while others are mined deep below the surface under extremely dangerous conditions.

Iron, which is a basic component in the production of steel, is less abundant. Melting iron ore and other minerals together in large furnaces manufacture steel. Flat steel plates are manufactured during this process. Later on, these steel plates are used to manufacture other products. Steel is a very important component of the modern manufacturing process. Just consider the car that was referred to earlier in the module. Without steel, there would be no motor vehicle production line.

There are two methods of mining:

  • open mining;
  • tunnel mining.

Minerals like iron, copper, asbestos and diamonds are sometimes mined from open cast mines. These simply are large open holes in the earth that are dug in such a way that a spiralling road leading to the deepest part of the mine is formed. This means that vehicles that transport ore and materials to the places where they are processed can be driven to every part of the mine.

When minerals are found deep under the ground, a shaft has to be built. Mine headgear is erected and a deep hole is drilled into the earth. Shaft diggers (sinkers) dig side passages and tunnels from this hole (shaft). This enables the miners to reach the reefs or veins containing the minerals. These passages and tunnels are situated on different levels.

The minerals are blasted loose with dynamite and are then dug out. The “gravel” is loaded into iron buckets (cocopans), which run along a rail like a train and are hoisted to the surface of the earth in lifts for the minerals to be processed. Excess rock is dumped on mine dumps and the watery remains are taken to sludge dams .

Activity:

To supply a diagram with captions

[lo 1.1]

  • Consult the preceding paragraphs and supply this illustration of a cross-section of a shaft mine with the necessary captions.

Assessment

LO 1

GEOGRAPHICAL ENQUIRY

The learner will be able to use enquiry skills to investigate geographical and environmental concepts and processes.

We know this when the learner:

1.1 with guidance, selects and uses sources of useful geographical information [finds sources];

1.2 distinguishes between facts and opinions [works with sources];

1.3 categorises information [works with sources];

1.4 uses an index to find places on global atlas maps [works with sources];

1.6 identifies and explores possible solutions to problems [answers the question];

1.7 demonstrates knowledge and under-standing of the issue through projects, discussion, debate and charts [communicates the answer].

Questions & Answers

Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
hi
Loga
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Social sciences: geography grade 5. OpenStax CNX. Sep 23, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10986/1.2
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