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Sosiale wetenskappe: aardrykskunde

Graad 9

Sosiale en omgewingskonflik in suid-afrika

Module 9

Sosiale en omgewingskonflik

1. Politieke agtergrond

Na die vrylating van Nelson Mandela in 1990, het geweld in Suid-Afrika toegeneem, terwyl baie verwag het dat dit die begin sou wees van ‘n vreedsamer samelewing.

Die oorsaak kan onder andere gesoek word in die wisselwerking tussen die omgewingstekorte en sosiale onrus in Suid-Afrika oor die afgelope dekades. Suid-Afrika het ernstige omgewingsprobleme, maar hulle is die afgelope tyd oorskadu deur die negatiewe sosiale uitwerking van apartheid, weerstand teen minderheidsregering en die poging om ‘n post-apartheid politieke bestel tot stand te bring. Die oorgang na ‘n volle demokrasie het goed verloop, maar die apartheidsbestel het ‘n problematiese ekologiese erfenis nagelaat wat politieke, sosiale en ekonomiese toestande vir dekades lank gaan beïnvloed. Die vooruitsigte vir ‘n welvarende, vreedsame en demokratiese Suid-Afrika lyk trouens minder rooskleurig as die moontlike invloed wat ons omgewingstekorte op sosiale stabiliteit kan hê, reg verstaan word.

Omgewingsskaarste het binne die konteks van apartheid bygedra tot:

  • verlaagde landbouproduktiwiteit in die voormalige tuislande;
  • migrasies na en binne-in stedelike gebiede; en
  • die agteruitgang van die plaaslike stedelike omgewing.

2. Suid-Afrika: verby apartheid

Die onteiening van die oorspronklike inwoners van Suid-Afrika van hul land, het reeds met die Britse koloniale bewind begin, maar rassesegregasie is deur die Nasionale Party se oorwinning in 1948 en hul toepassing van apartheid, verskans. Apartheid het 87% van die land aan die blankes besorg terwyl die swartes, ongeveer 75% van die bevolking, in tuislande geleef het wat omtrent 13 % van die land beslaan het.

Die swart bevolking in hierdie gebiede het hulself gehandhaaf deur middel van landbou, plaaslike diensindustrieë en trekarbeid in myne en nywerhede wat in die besit van blankes was.

Vanaf 1960 tot 1980 het die Regering 1,75 miljoen mense wat hulself na die kansellering van arbeid-huurderkontrakte, in stedelike plakkerskampe en plattelandse dorpies neergelaat het, na die tuislande gedwing. Dit het bygedra tot:

  • kwasi-stedelike gemeenskappe op die grense van die tuislande;
  • meer mense wat in enkel-geslagkoshuise naby nywerhede gewoon het;
  • ‘n waarneembare apartheidsopset wat vandag nog bestaan: natuurlike omgewingseienskappe soos riviere, klowe en rante, of mensgemaakte versperrings soos industriële gebiede, nywerheidsgordels en spoorlyne skei die verskillende rassegroepe van mekaar;
  • ‘n ongelyke verdeling van stedelike grond, met die swartes wat te min grond gekry het om hulle almal te huisves en die grond ook swakker geposisioneer (ver van die stadsentrum af, naby industriële gebiede) met ‘n ontoereikende infrastruktuur (swak rioolstelsels, water- en elektrisiteitsvoorsiening).

Die gevolg van hierdie ontwikkeling is dat die stedelike swartbevolking toenemend op die plaaslike omgewing aangewese geraak het vir hulle dag-tot-dag behoeftes en dat die omgewings vinnig agteruit gegaan het.

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Source:  OpenStax, Aardrykskunde graad 9. OpenStax CNX. Sep 14, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11054/1.1
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