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Our knowledge of cells, how they react and how they can be manipulated, is advancing rapidly. Words such as cloning, genetic manipulation, GMO’s and gene therapy are becoming part of the everyday vocabulary in the media. Cell-biology, genetics and related fields are becoming even more important study disciplines.

Core information is passed on during the process of fertilisation. This information can be described as the plan according to which the new organism is to develop. The plan is inscribed in a special molecule, known as DNA. DNA consists of codes. These codes determine all the features of the new organism.

These codes are found in short units called genes. The study of this molecule and structures such as genes, and the way in which it is passed on from one generation to the next, is called genetics.

Activity 2:

To find information on genetic manipulation

[lo 1.7, 2.2]

Do the following on your own:

a) Go to the library and find information on different types of plants that have been genetically manipulated to ensure a higher production of crops. This is an example of how technology is used for development. Write down in your own words what you understand under genetic manipulation, and what is meant by technology. Find out what happens in laboratories, and how scientists in different fields contribute to the development of a country.

b) Visit the following website on the internet (you will be able to find many others):


Saby Ganguly: From Bengal Famine to the Green Revolution (Use the title or key words in the title to execute a search).

Peter Rosset, Joseph Collins, Francis Moore Lappé: Lessons from the Green Revolution , Tikkun Magazine, March/April 2000

DIscuss the following statements in groups of two:

Activity 3:

To determine the effects of the use of toxic substances on human beings and the environment

[lo 2.1]

Pesticides can be applied to protect crops against damage from insects. It may, however, also have a negative influence on the eco-system.

  1. Get absolute clarity on the meaning of the above statement.
  2. Find out what detrimental effects the use of pesticides may have on human beings and the environment.

Activity 4:

To establish if food production in the rsa is sufficient to meet the needs of the people

[lo 2.3]

The big challenge facing the agricultural sector, is to produce enough food to provide for the world’s fast growing population. In certain parts of the world, however, there are already people who cannot be fed sufficiently, and even die of hunger. According to the figures of the World Bank, over 840 million people in the world did not have enough to eat in the year 2000. In developing countries about 30 people per minute die of a food shortage. The production of food will have to increase by 50% to feed the additional two billion of people towards the year 2025. This makes the present situation much more complex than before the beginning of the Green Revolution in the 1970’s.

  1. Is this also happening in our country?
  2. Are there also people who eat too much?

Questions & Answers

what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Geography grade 9. OpenStax CNX. Sep 14, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11057/1.1
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