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Finally, although a software design is correct, it may not be followed as such during its implementation. So, we must be aware that wrong implementation of a design can lead to wrong software just like a wrong design would.

We understand that software design can lead to some drawbacks that are not to be ignored, but its advantages, as we have seen, are very relevant too. Considering all this, we believe that understanding the fundamentals of (software) design, as well good practices, guidelines, and enabling techniques are essential to an aspiring architect.

Elements of software design process

The design process can be described as the process of choosing a representation of a solution from a set of alternatives, given the constraints towards a set of goals. It can be divided in two phases : diversification and convergence.

The diversification is the phase of generating alternatives. Not necessarily documents describing a possible solution, but, at least, on the designer's mind. These alternatives are the solution candidates and are generated/obtained from knowledge, catalogs, or previous experience. During the convergence phase, the designer chooses the alternative (or the combination of alternatives) that meets the intended goals. The alternative selected will be the solution, which will meet the constraints imposed by the problem domain. The solution then may be described using some representation. The representation chosen must fit its purpose: describe the solution and the process to build the artifact that reaches the intended goals.

From the paragraph above, we must emphasize the following elements: goals , constraints , alternatives , representations , and solutions . These elements together define a conceptual framework that helps to understand the software design process.

Goals

Design begins with a need. If something is to be designed, though to be built, it is because the outcome of the design process will fulfill this need. In Software Engineering, the necessity starts from a customer who specifies what are her needs and therefore what are the goals to be achieved with the software system to be designed. So, the goal of the design process is to achieve a solution that will solve the customer's needs . In software design, goals are also referred to as requirements. Software design is mainly concerned on two types of requirements: functional and nonfunctional requirements.

A functional requirement specifies the functionality that a system will exhibit. In other words, what the system is to perform according to the customer. For example, a functional requirement for a sorting program is to provide the ability to sort integers. Another example could be related to a software system that manages the inventory of a movie rental store. If we were to enumerate the functional requirements of a system like this, among them would be: the ability to search for a movie by its keywords, the ability to perform a movie rental, the ability to perform a movie return, and many others.

Questions & Answers

how can chip be made from sand
Eke Reply
is this allso about nanoscale material
Almas
are nano particles real
Missy Reply
yeah
Joseph
Hello, if I study Physics teacher in bachelor, can I study Nanotechnology in master?
Lale Reply
no can't
Lohitha
where is the latest information on a no technology how can I find it
William
currently
William
where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
has a lot of application modern world
Kamaluddeen
yes
narayan
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
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Source:  OpenStax, Software architecture for experts-to-be. OpenStax CNX. Sep 16, 2008 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10574/1.1
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