# 0.4 Covalent bonding and electron pair sharing

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## Foundation

We begin with our understanding of the relationship between chemical behavior and atomic structure. Thatis, we assume the Periodic Law that the chemical and physical properties of the elements are periodic functions of atomic number.We further assume the structure of the atom as a massive, positively charged nucleus, whose size is much smaller than that ofthe atom as a whole, surrounded by a vast open space in which move negatively charged electrons. These electrons can be effectivelypartitioned into a core and a valence shell, and it is only the electrons in the valence shell which are significant to thechemical properties of the atom. The number of valence electrons in each atom is equal to the group number of that element in thePeriodic Table.

## Goals

The atomic molecular theory is extremely useful in explaining what it means to form a compound its componentelements. That is, a compound consists of identical molecules, each comprised of the atoms of the component elements in a simple wholenumber ratio. However, the atomic molecular theory also opens up a wide range of new questions. We would like to know what atomicproperties determine the number of atoms of each type which combine to form stable compounds. Why are some combinations observed andother combinations not observed? Some elements with very dissimilar atomic masses (for example, iodine and chlorine) form very similarchemical compounds, but other elements with very similar atomic masses (for example, oxygen and nitrogen) form very dissimilarcompounds. What factors are responsible for the bonding properties of the elements in a similar group? In general, we need to knowwhat forces hold atoms together in forming a molecule.

We have developed a detail understanding of the structure of the atom. Our task now is to apply thisunderstanding to develop a similar level of detail about how atoms bond together to form molecules.

## Observation 1: valence and the periodic table

To begin our analysis of chemical bonding, we define the valence of an atom by its tendencies to form molecules. The inert gases do not tend to combine with any other atoms. Wethus assign their valence as 0, meaning that these atoms tend to form 0bonds. Each halogen prefers to form molecules by combining with a single hydrogen atom ( e.g. $HF$ , $H\mathrm{Cl}$ ). We thus assign their valence as 1, also taking hydrogen to alsohave a valence of 1. What we mean by a valence of 1 is that these atoms prefer to bind to only one other atom. The valence of oxygen,sulfur, etc. is assigned as 2, since two hydrogens are required to satisfy bonding needs of these atoms. Nitrogen, phosphorus, etc.have a valence of 3, and carbon and silicon have a valence of 4. This concept also applies to elements just following the inertgases. Lithium, sodium, potassium, and rubidium bind with a single halogen atom. Therefore, they also have a valence of 1.Correspondingly, it is not surprising to find that, for example, the combination of two potassium atoms with a single oxygen atomforms a stable molecule, since oxygen's valence of 2 is be satisfied by the two alkali atoms, each with valence 1. We canproceed in this manner to assign a valence to each element, by simply determining the number of atoms to which thiselement's atoms prefer to bind.

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
what about nanotechnology for water purification
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
why?
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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