<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >

Foundation

We have developed an understanding of equilibrium involving phase transitions and involving reactions entirely in the gas phase. We will assume anunderstanding of the principles of dynamic equilibrium, reaction equilibrium constants, and Le Châtelier's Principle . To understand application of these principles to reactions in solution, we willnow assume a definition of certain classes of substances as being either acids or bases. An acid is a substance whose moleculesdonate positive hydrogen ions (protons) to other molecules or ions. When dissolved in pure water, acid molecules will transfer ahydrogen ion to a water molecule or to a cluster of several water molecules. This increases the concentration of H + ions in the solution. A base is a substance whose molecules accept hydrogen ions from other molecules. When dissolved in pure water,base molecules will accept a hydrogen ion from a water molecule, leaving behind an increased concentration of O H - ions in the solution. To understand what determines acid-base behavior, we will assume an understanding of the bonding,structure, and properties of individual molecules.

Goals

Acids and bases are very common substances whose properties vary greatly. Many acids are known to be quitecorrosive, with the ability to dissolve solid metals or burn flesh. Many other acids, however, are not only benign but vital to theprocesses of life. Far from destroying biological molecules, they carry out reactions critical for organisms. Similarly, many basesare caustic cleansers while many others are medications to calm indigestion pains.

In this concept study, we will develop an understanding of the characteristics of molecules which make themeither acids or bases. We will examine measurements about the relative strengths of acids and bases, and we will use these todevelop a quantitative understanding of the relative strengths of acids and bases. From this, we can develop a qualitativeunderstanding of the properties of molecules which determine whether a molecule is a strong acid or a weak acid, a strong baseor a weak base. This understanding is valuable in predicting the outcomes of reactions, based on the relative quantitative strengthsof acids and bases. These reactions are commonly referred to as neutralization reactions. A surprisingly large number of reactions,particularly in organic chemistry, can be understood as transfer of hydrogen ions from acid molecules to base molecules.

Observation 1: strong acids and weak acids

From the definition of an acid given in the Foundation, a typical acid can be written as H A , representing the hydrogen ion which will be donated and the rest ofthe molecule which will remain as a negative ion after the donation. The typical reaction of an acid in aqueous solutionreacting with water can be written as

H A ( aq ) + H 2 O ( l ) H 3 O + ( aq ) + A - ( aq )

In this reaction, H A ( aq ) represents an acid molecule dissolved in aqueous solution. H 3 O + ( aq ) is a notation to indicate that the donated proton has been dissolved in solution. Observations indicate that the proton isassociated with several water molecules in a cluster, rather than attached to a single molecule. H 3 O + is a simplified notation to represent this result. Similarly, the A - ( aq ) ion is solvated by several water molecules. [link] is referred to as acid ionization .

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
Privacy Information Security Software Version 1.1a
Good
Got questions? Join the online conversation and get instant answers!
Jobilize.com Reply

Get Jobilize Job Search Mobile App in your pocket Now!

Get it on Google Play




Source:  OpenStax, General chemistry ii. OpenStax CNX. Mar 25, 2005 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10262/1.2
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'General chemistry ii' conversation and receive update notifications?

Ask