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In addition to the 2 molecules of ATP and NADH the cells gain a series of small intermediates or precursors that are necessary for the construction of monomers which in turn are used to build polymers. These precursors include: Glucose-6-phosphate, Fructose-6-phosphate, Triose-phosphate, 3-Phosphoglycerate, Phosphoenolpyruvate, and Pyruvate . These substrates are the building blocks to form monomers that lead to a variety of biopolymers including including proteins (monomer: amino acids) and polysaccharides.

The net result of glycolysis: 2 pyruvates, 2 NADH and 2 ATP. the other important point is that this is an anaerobic    process. There is no requirement for molecular oxygen in glycolysis. This process occurs in the cytosol or cytoplasm of cells. For a short (3 minute) overview YouTube video of glycolysis click here .

Glycolysis: the oxidation of glucose to pyruvate

Glycolysis is the metabolic process of breaking down or oxidizing hexoses, or six carbon sugars, to two molecules of pyruvate, a three carbon keto acid. The importance of glycolysis is really two fold, first is to generate small carbon compounds that the cell can use as building blocks construct other cellular components. Secondly, many cells, including mammals generate energy in form of ATP from glycolysis. Whhile not all cells generate energy from glycolysis, nearly all living organisms carry out glycolysis as part of their metabolism. The process does not use oxygen and is therefore anaerobic    . Glycolysis takes place in the cytoplasm of bacteral, archeal and eukaryotic cells. Remember that most biological processes are freely reversible, depending upon the needs of the cell. The reverse set of reactions to glycolysis, that is, the process of taking two molecules of pyruvate and reducing them to form one molecule of glucose is called gluconeogenesis . The balance between these two process keeps the flux of carbon (hexoses) sensitive to the needs of the cell.

While glycolysis begins with glucose being activated with the addition of a phosphate from ATP, many different types of hexoses (six carbon sugars) and polysaccharides (polymers of sugars) can feed into glycolysis at the point of glucose or glucose-6-phosphate. Many different hexoses, such as Galactose or Mannose, can be converted to glucose by a hexose isomerase , an enzyme that can rearrange the hydroxyl groups on the hexose and form glucose. Disaccharides (such as lactose, maltose or sucrose), trisaccharides (such as maltose triose) and polysaccharides (longer sugar polymers such as starch or glycogen) can be degraded by hydrolysis reactions to the monomers which can then be converted to glucose and enter glycolysis. The importance of glycolysis and gluconeogenesis, and along with the TCA cycle is central to all cells for the production of compounds necessary to build the monomers for biopolymers. As a result, these pathways has been given the common name of " Central Metabolism ".

Glycolysis begins with the six carbon ring-shaped structure of a single glucose molecule and ends with two molecules of a three-carbon sugar called pyruvate    . Glycolysis consists of two distinct phases. The first part of the glycolysis pathway traps the glucose molecule in the cell and uses energy to modify it so that the six-carbon sugar molecule can be split evenly into the two three-carbon molecules. The second part of glycolysis extracts energy from the molecules and stores it in the form of ATP and NADH, the reduced form of NAD + .

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
what does post-translational control refer to?
Teresa Reply
Bioremediation includes
Rachel Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Ucd bis2a intro to biology v1.2. OpenStax CNX. Sep 22, 2015 Download for free at https://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11890/1.1
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