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In addition to the 2 molecules of ATP and NADH the cells gain a series of small intermediates or precursors that are necessary for the construction of monomers which in turn are used to build polymers. These precursors include: Glucose-6-phosphate, Fructose-6-phosphate, Triose-phosphate, 3-Phosphoglycerate, Phosphoenolpyruvate, and Pyruvate . These substrates are the building blocks to form monomers that lead to a variety of biopolymers including including proteins (monomer: amino acids) and polysaccharides.

The net result of glycolysis: 2 pyruvates, 2 NADH and 2 ATP. the other important point is that this is an anaerobic    process. There is no requirement for molecular oxygen in glycolysis. This process occurs in the cytosol or cytoplasm of cells. For a short (3 minute) overview YouTube video of glycolysis click here .

Glycolysis: the oxidation of glucose to pyruvate

Glycolysis is the metabolic process of breaking down or oxidizing hexoses, or six carbon sugars, to two molecules of pyruvate, a three carbon keto acid. The importance of glycolysis is really two fold, first is to generate small carbon compounds that the cell can use as building blocks construct other cellular components. Secondly, many cells, including mammals generate energy in form of ATP from glycolysis. Whhile not all cells generate energy from glycolysis, nearly all living organisms carry out glycolysis as part of their metabolism. The process does not use oxygen and is therefore anaerobic    . Glycolysis takes place in the cytoplasm of bacteral, archeal and eukaryotic cells. Remember that most biological processes are freely reversible, depending upon the needs of the cell. The reverse set of reactions to glycolysis, that is, the process of taking two molecules of pyruvate and reducing them to form one molecule of glucose is called gluconeogenesis . The balance between these two process keeps the flux of carbon (hexoses) sensitive to the needs of the cell.

While glycolysis begins with glucose being activated with the addition of a phosphate from ATP, many different types of hexoses (six carbon sugars) and polysaccharides (polymers of sugars) can feed into glycolysis at the point of glucose or glucose-6-phosphate. Many different hexoses, such as Galactose or Mannose, can be converted to glucose by a hexose isomerase , an enzyme that can rearrange the hydroxyl groups on the hexose and form glucose. Disaccharides (such as lactose, maltose or sucrose), trisaccharides (such as maltose triose) and polysaccharides (longer sugar polymers such as starch or glycogen) can be degraded by hydrolysis reactions to the monomers which can then be converted to glucose and enter glycolysis. The importance of glycolysis and gluconeogenesis, and along with the TCA cycle is central to all cells for the production of compounds necessary to build the monomers for biopolymers. As a result, these pathways has been given the common name of " Central Metabolism ".

Glycolysis begins with the six carbon ring-shaped structure of a single glucose molecule and ends with two molecules of a three-carbon sugar called pyruvate    . Glycolysis consists of two distinct phases. The first part of the glycolysis pathway traps the glucose molecule in the cell and uses energy to modify it so that the six-carbon sugar molecule can be split evenly into the two three-carbon molecules. The second part of glycolysis extracts energy from the molecules and stores it in the form of ATP and NADH, the reduced form of NAD + .

Questions & Answers

how environment affect demand and supply of commodity ?
Amos Reply
Wht at the criteria for market ?
what is difference between monitory policy and fiscal policy?
Malik Reply
monetary policy is a policy thrust by National Govt(CBN) to influence government spending, purchase &taxes
necessity of economics
Pamela Reply
I will say want,choice,opportunity cost,scarcity,scale of preference
what is monopoly market.How price output are determined under monopoly market
b) Monopoly market is an impecfect market where s single firm having the innovation to produce a particular commodity.Prices are determined through output since there are no other competitive.
Monopoly market:firm has market power & does not respond to market price
Explain the process of price determination under perfect competition market with suitable diagram
bisham Reply
Price determination under perfect competition via this process :firms have no market power to influence price rather firms respond to market price.
price is different from demand- demand is amount of commodity
Effah Reply
demand is amount /quantity of commodity a potential buyer is willing to buy at a given price at market
demand is a desire of customer on commodity with the ability to pay it and willing to buy it at given price of commodity
demand is price of what
Faith Reply
show that shortrun average cost
Baby Reply
what is economics
Mbah Reply
what is money
what is money
Difine macro economics
money is a medium of exchange between goods and services,maybe inform of currency.
Economics is study of how human beings strive to satisfy numerous wants using limited available resources.
how do you find the maximum number of workers the firms should employ order to produce where there are increasing returns
what are implications of computing national income?.
what is the formulae for calculating national income
it calculated by value added method
classify the production units like agriculture, banking, transport etc
money is anything that is generally acceptetable for human
Estimate the net value added(NVA) at fixed cost by each industrial structure
definition of unemployment
Adam Reply
what are the causes of unemployment?
Mbubi Reply
The main causes of unemployment are listed below. 1. Frictional unemployment 2. Cyclical unemployment 3. Structural unemployment
We can also categorize the causes on a broader sense as: 1. Political and 2. Social cause As unemployeement root causes are embaded in this two.
would opportunity cost exist if there was no scarcity?
yes just because the opportunity cost arose when there is Alternative to choose among the alternatives.
I am thinking that, if our resources were unlimited, then there wouldn't be any need to forgo some wants. Hence the inexistence if opportunity cost
politics has done what?
consider time assani
I'm Emmanuel,...I taught the main cause is the change in gov't.
...Lack of capital to set up a firm respectively
I would like to bring in Educational levels can also be the cause the cause of the problem respectively
lack of skills among the new generation is the serious issue.
Where I come from , I don't see why education or personal aspects seem to do with unimployment, technically the motivation and eigerness in all works of live is there , dispite the cultural influence and physical bearriors;the thing we lacking is Government Support and open market ethics.
sorry about that-(repation). We have a over powering ethical political system that's displacing the marketing asspects of economy and causing large scale unemployment right across the board...
can someone Explain Expansionary Monetary Policy and Contractionary Monetary Policy Using one of the instrument of Monetary Policy? Please am kinda lost here?. ta
Emmanuel Reply
using a graph show the case of substitute and compliment goods
Ade Reply
can anyone give me a simple explanation to Five Sector Macroeconomics?
Can someone please define what economics is
jason Reply
economics simply is a social science subject that study human behavior.
economics is a social science which studies human behaviour as a relationship between ends and scarce means that has alternative uses
Can someone please tell me how to calculate GDP
emmanual kapal to calculate GDP (Gross Domestic Product) has three method in calculating it (1)income approach (2) expenditure approach (3) value added method
thanks Alae
u are welcome
in basic terms economics is revered to as battery system, it date back to when Men sees the need to exchange sapless goods and produce to gain , either wealth , basic necessities or to establish trading ties for personal benefit or social asspects in terms of coexistence and continuity, future .
what is the law of demand
Berlinda Reply
keep other thing constant, when the price increases demand decrease when the price decreases demand increases of the commodity.
all things being equal,quantity demanded decrease as price increase and increase as price decrease
there's practial joke to it ..." the higher the demand ; scarcity, increase in production and drop in quality"... quite the controversy - for example China vs Europe, United States and we are all boxed up in between somewhere...
Other thing remain constant the low price of commodity the high quantity of commodity and vice versa is true
Explain Effective demand
Anita Reply
What is effective demand
like Modi is in demand...best example of effective demand
Don't get you
Anita you mean you don't get me or who?
level of demand that represents a real intention to purchase by people with the means to pay
Difference between extinct and extici spicies
Amanpreet Reply
While the American heart association suggests that meditation might be used in conjunction with more traditional treatments as a way to manage hypertension
Beverly Reply
in a comparison of the stages of meiosis to the stage of mitosis, which stages are unique to meiosis and which stages have the same event in botg meiosis and mitosis
Leah Reply
what does post-translational control refer to?
Teresa Reply
Bioremediation includes
Rachel Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Ucd bis2a intro to biology v1.2. OpenStax CNX. Sep 22, 2015 Download for free at https://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11890/1.1
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