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Premises contamination

The design of the premises is very important when determining risks of product contamination. You must consider the layout and design of your facilities and premises:

  • secure entry points
  • secure parameters
  • equipment used
  • glass or foreign body contamination.

The design of the premises preferably should be considered during the building of the facility, with consideration given to the availability of services: that is, electricity, gas, and water supply.

The design, layout and maintenance of the premises should be reviewed carefully on a routine schedule in order to prevent product contamination. Where necessary or appropriate, changes should be made.

Design of facilities and equipment

Content (as it should appear on screen):

A satisfactory design of facilities and equipment is essential in avoiding hazards of product contamination. The food preparation areas and storage areas must be large enough to hold all essential equipment, enable the effective separation of raw and high-risk foods, and permit satisfactory workflows for food, food handlers, and waste.

The following factory design principles should be followed:

  • cross-contamination eliminated by separating raw and high-risk food areas and color-coding work stations
  • linear workflow and progress in a uniform direction from raw material to finished product
  • laundry situated in a separate room to reduce risk of contamination
  • suitable and sufficient facilities for personal hygiene, cleaning and disinfecting equipment with hot and cold water essential
  • equipment and utensils washing areas segregated from food production areas
  • adequate refrigeration
  • adequate cooking and cooling facilities
  • pests denied access and harborage
  • suitable staff facilities, including appropriate toilet facilities
  • adequate drainage
  • suitable and sufficient ventilation
  • high standard of lighting
  • design which prevents accumulations of dirt in inaccessible places.

Foreign body prevention from the factory fabrication

The construction of the premises is important to prevent the occurrence of foreign body contamination.

  • Ceilings should be smooth, clean, fire-resistant, non-flaking, light-colored, covered at wall joints, and easy to clean.
  • Walls should be clean, smooth, impervious, non-flaking, durable, light-colored, and capable of being thoroughly cleaned or disinfected. Surfaces may need to be resistant to spillages, chemicals, grease, heat, and impact.
  • Floor surfaces should be clean, durable, non-absorbent, anti-slip, free from crevices, and capable of being effectively cleaned. They may need to be resistant to acids, grease, and salts; and, where necessary, should slope sufficiently for liquids to drain to trapped gullies.
  • Any glass windows, if present, must be protected from breakage.
  • Windows must be fitted with cleansable fly-screens.
  • External doors should be screened, and all doors should be self-closing.
  • Wooden finishes should not normally be used; but, if in place, these should be well-maintained and appropriately sealed to prevent product contamination.
  • Suitable receptacles should be provided for the disposal of waste and debris.

Glass/brittle plastics contamination

Glass and brittle plastics pose a specific health risk to consumers. It is highly unlikely that glass can be completely removed from a factory’s premises, but procedures should be in place to control and manage the risk of product contamination.

As a food safety manager, you should develop a glass/brittle plastics policy that specifies requirements for shielding fluorescent tubes and light bulbs in processing areas, for protection or removal of glass gauges, emergency lights, thermometers, and wall clocks. Where glass windows are present, these must be shielded to prevent breakage.

Pest contamination

Pests within food production factories are regarded as a serious hazard and risk to health; they not only can contaminate food with foreign bodies such as feces and hair, but they also can carry possible fatal diseases.

Control systems need to be in place to reduce the risk of pest contamination by understanding what pests are attracted to and what their habits are, along with monitoring and introducing control measures.

Reduce attraction of pests

It is important that pests are not attracted to the factory or allowed ingression into the factory.

Waste Control

Waste should be removed regularly from production areas and stored in covered containers. All waste must be correctly stored in covered containers that are located in one specific area.

Exterior Maintenance

There must be effective maintenance of the external perimeters of the factory to eliminate any possible harborage or attraction of pests. For example, where grass or any other vegetation is present at the perimeters of the factor, it needs to be cut and controlled so as not to encourage harborage of possible pests.

Factory Fabrication

Any open access to your factory, such as doors and windows, must be controlled. All doors must have self-closing devices, and windows must be screened.

Monitoring pests

A monitoring and control program should be in place for keeping up-to-date records of pest control.

Regular inspections must be carried out to ensure that the factory is free from pest infestation.

The signs of infestations include

  • live/dead bodies of insects, rodents, or other animals
  • droppings
  • holes/runs
  • footprints/tail marks
  • chewed paper or food
  • gnawing damage
  • bait takes
  • scratching sounds
  • grease marks on walls
  • odor
  • larvae/pupae
  • eggs/egg cases
  • webbing

In the event of evidence of pest infestation, you should take immediate action to eliminate the pests. You will also need to monitor the situation to take preventive actions to prevent any recurrence.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Food safety knowledge network basic level requirements. OpenStax CNX. Dec 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11142/1.4
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