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While eastern and southern Italy, in spite of the Moslem raids, remained for the most part Byzantine in culture, the rest of the peninsula developed a new civilization, a new language, religion and art from its Roman heritage. The Italian language became the most melodious of tongues; Italian Christianity was a romantic and colorful paganism, - a frank mythology of legend and miracle. Rome itself declined and science succumbed to superstition and only medicine kept its head up through the monasteries. Latin Christendom adopted the Iranian type of heavy armored cavalry and with this began to stem the barbarian tide and pave the way for counter-expansion in the next two centuries. A bright spot on the peninsula was Salerno, where a university with a medical school was founded, which soon became famous throughout Europe. (Ref. 49 , 125 )

CENTRAL EUROPE

Germany

The empire of Karl the Great (Charlemagne) was a theocratic church-state with his functioning as a priest-king and as an emperor. Included in his religious missions had been the conquest and conversion of the Saxons. He regarded the pope as simply his chaplain. (Ref. 181 ) At the same time, his empire was actually an artificial construction and did not survive him. Nevertheless, in a sense, he saved civilization because through him the Atlantic world re-established contact with the ancient, Mediterranean culture. He did this by arranging for the collecting and copying of books. With the exception of 3 or 4 surviving original antique manuscripts, our whole knowledge of ancient literature has come only through the copying that began under Charlemagne. These copyists also developed the Carolingian script which has survived until today. Their books were works of art and overall splendid masterpieces. (Ref. 33 ) The emperor died in 814, five years after the realm had been swept by famine. (Ref. 213 ) The Carolingian Dynasty immediately declined as the empire was divided by his one surviving son among three grandsons - Pepin, Louis and Karl, all of whom died within 8 years. Their successors were weak leaders and many local wars broke out between rulers, nobles and church with resulting recurrent partitions of the empire. Finally by the Treaty of Verdun (843) the original empire was officially divided into three parts, with Lothair keeping the title of emperor and a central area, extending from the Netherlands almost to Naples. Charles the Bald got the western area and Ludwig the eastern area and in this way France and Germany became dissociated. (Ref. 57 ) It was not originally a difference of race or temperament but a difference of language and tradition. The western branch was assimilated by the country-side Latin, which became French, while the Germanic group had retained their original Germanic tongue. The Franks in north Germany even differed also from the Swabians and south Germans. Ludwig actually was the first king of Germany, but the artificial divisions of the empire were still poorly arranged because they paid no heed to these growing regional differences. The monstrous territory of Lotharingia (French - "Lorraine") was to be disputed between France and Germany well up into the 20th century. The Italian part was also a continued problem area, with subsequent German emperors having to attempt to reconquer the region at frequent intervals for centuries. Additional Notes

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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