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Silk production had begun in northern Italy and Milan, a city of 200,000 ruled in this century by the Guelf, Della Torre, was already famous for its metal work. Wool was exported to the East and textile industries were developing rapidly. With respect to this there is an interesting sidelight. Local wool, chiefly from Tuscany, was of poor quality and the best cloth, on which the Tuscan merchants became rich, was bought as raw wool from Spain, Minorca, Africa, or from the Coswolds of England. In this way the shepherds of those far away isles helped to create the fortunes of the Bardi, the Medici and the Frescobaldi, who in turn financed the coming Renaissance. The wool-based wealth of Florence led to the establishment of the great Florentine banking families and the whole apparatus of modern commerce such as trading associations, modern company shares, credit systems and the like. (Ref. 137 , 213 ) Additional Notes

The last half of this century was the period of the famous journeys of the Polo family of Venice. The brothers Nicolo and Maffeo traveled in Asia and China in 1255 and 1256 and made a second journey with Nicolo's son, Marco, beginning in 1271. Marco, after extensive service and traveling for the Mongol Khan in Asia, China, Burma and India, returned to Europe in 1295, only to be imprisoned by the Genoese. On page 753 there is a map showing these travels.

Central europe

It is clear from the preceding paragraphs that this was the century of the Mongol invasions of Europe. Those nomads from the East were never decisively beaten in Europe but withdrew finally by their own choice. Europeans had ignored the light Asian and the tall slender Arab horses and developed a large, massive, slow breed of their own to carry the heavy armor inherited from Roman times. Thus, they were no match in battle against the invading, nimble horses of Asia. Furthermore the same defect was apparent in the Crusades when the large European horses perished in droves, contributing to the general defeats. (Ref. 122 )


After the installation of Otto IV, son of Henry the Lion, as emperor, the empire rapidly lost prestige to France and in effect became a loose confederacy of magnates giving little actual power to the emperor. (Ref. 137 ) This situation changed somewhat with the ascension of Emperor Frederick II, who, as noted above, was the grandson of Frederick Barbarossa and of King Roger II of Sicily. Frederick had been raised in Palmero as a proud Sicilian, speaking Latin, Greek, Italian, French and Arabic and with a passion for science, astronomy, falconry and ornithology. He felt that Islam was a superior world and he had Moslem mercenaries and a harem. It was he who introduced Arabic numerals and algebra to Christians and he alternately cajoled and fought with the papacy, although he would not allow his own people to deviate from the straight Catholic line and actually helped to promote the Inquisition. Frederick, himself, was a "free-thinker" and some accused him of being more Moslem than Christian. He protected Jews in spite of the pope's orders. Forced to start a Christian Crusade in 1228 he set out against his friend, the Sultan of Egypt (who had just given him a giraffe) and he came back from Egypt with a secret ten year lease on Jerusalem, Bethlehem and Nazareth and tried to take over Rome as his capital. As a result of all this, neither he nor the pope was in a position to help King Bela of Hungary when the Mongols arrived. (Ref. 27 )

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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