<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >

Silk production had begun in northern Italy and Milan, a city of 200,000 ruled in this century by the Guelf, Della Torre, was already famous for its metal work. Wool was exported to the East and textile industries were developing rapidly. With respect to this there is an interesting sidelight. Local wool, chiefly from Tuscany, was of poor quality and the best cloth, on which the Tuscan merchants became rich, was bought as raw wool from Spain, Minorca, Africa, or from the Coswolds of England. In this way the shepherds of those far away isles helped to create the fortunes of the Bardi, the Medici and the Frescobaldi, who in turn financed the coming Renaissance. The wool-based wealth of Florence led to the establishment of the great Florentine banking families and the whole apparatus of modern commerce such as trading associations, modern company shares, credit systems and the like. (Ref. 137 , 213 ) Additional Notes

The last half of this century was the period of the famous journeys of the Polo family of Venice. The brothers Nicolo and Maffeo traveled in Asia and China in 1255 and 1256 and made a second journey with Nicolo's son, Marco, beginning in 1271. Marco, after extensive service and traveling for the Mongol Khan in Asia, China, Burma and India, returned to Europe in 1295, only to be imprisoned by the Genoese. On page 753 there is a map showing these travels.

Central europe

It is clear from the preceding paragraphs that this was the century of the Mongol invasions of Europe. Those nomads from the East were never decisively beaten in Europe but withdrew finally by their own choice. Europeans had ignored the light Asian and the tall slender Arab horses and developed a large, massive, slow breed of their own to carry the heavy armor inherited from Roman times. Thus, they were no match in battle against the invading, nimble horses of Asia. Furthermore the same defect was apparent in the Crusades when the large European horses perished in droves, contributing to the general defeats. (Ref. 122 )


After the installation of Otto IV, son of Henry the Lion, as emperor, the empire rapidly lost prestige to France and in effect became a loose confederacy of magnates giving little actual power to the emperor. (Ref. 137 ) This situation changed somewhat with the ascension of Emperor Frederick II, who, as noted above, was the grandson of Frederick Barbarossa and of King Roger II of Sicily. Frederick had been raised in Palmero as a proud Sicilian, speaking Latin, Greek, Italian, French and Arabic and with a passion for science, astronomy, falconry and ornithology. He felt that Islam was a superior world and he had Moslem mercenaries and a harem. It was he who introduced Arabic numerals and algebra to Christians and he alternately cajoled and fought with the papacy, although he would not allow his own people to deviate from the straight Catholic line and actually helped to promote the Inquisition. Frederick, himself, was a "free-thinker" and some accused him of being more Moslem than Christian. He protected Jews in spite of the pope's orders. Forced to start a Christian Crusade in 1228 he set out against his friend, the Sultan of Egypt (who had just given him a giraffe) and he came back from Egypt with a secret ten year lease on Jerusalem, Bethlehem and Nazareth and tried to take over Rome as his capital. As a result of all this, neither he nor the pope was in a position to help King Bela of Hungary when the Mongols arrived. (Ref. 27 )

Questions & Answers

show that the set of all natural number form semi group under the composition of addition
Nikhil Reply
explain and give four Example hyperbolic function
Lukman Reply
⅗ ⅔½
The denominator of a certain fraction is 9 more than the numerator. If 6 is added to both terms of the fraction, the value of the fraction becomes 2/3. Find the original fraction. 2. The sum of the least and greatest of 3 consecutive integers is 60. What are the valu
1. x + 6 2 -------------- = _ x + 9 + 6 3 x + 6 3 ----------- x -- (cross multiply) x + 15 2 3(x + 6) = 2(x + 15) 3x + 18 = 2x + 30 (-2x from both) x + 18 = 30 (-18 from both) x = 12 Test: 12 + 6 18 2 -------------- = --- = --- 12 + 9 + 6 27 3
2. (x) + (x + 2) = 60 2x + 2 = 60 2x = 58 x = 29 29, 30, & 31
on number 2 question How did you got 2x +2
combine like terms. x + x + 2 is same as 2x + 2
Mark and Don are planning to sell each of their marble collections at a garage sale. If Don has 1 more than 3 times the number of marbles Mark has, how many does each boy have to sell if the total number of marbles is 113?
mariel Reply
Mark = x,. Don = 3x + 1 x + 3x + 1 = 113 4x = 112, x = 28 Mark = 28, Don = 85, 28 + 85 = 113
how do I set up the problem?
Harshika Reply
what is a solution set?
find the subring of gaussian integers?
hello, I am happy to help!
Shirley Reply
please can go further on polynomials quadratic
hi mam
I need quadratic equation link to Alpa Beta
Abdullahi Reply
find the value of 2x=32
Felix Reply
divide by 2 on each side of the equal sign to solve for x
Want to review on complex number 1.What are complex number 2.How to solve complex number problems.
yes i wantt to review
use the y -intercept and slope to sketch the graph of the equation y=6x
Only Reply
how do we prove the quadratic formular
Seidu Reply
please help me prove quadratic formula
hello, if you have a question about Algebra 2. I may be able to help. I am an Algebra 2 Teacher
Shirley Reply
thank you help me with how to prove the quadratic equation
may God blessed u for that. Please I want u to help me in sets.
what is math number
Tric Reply
x-2y+3z=-3 2x-y+z=7 -x+3y-z=6
Sidiki Reply
can you teacch how to solve that🙏
Solve for the first variable in one of the equations, then substitute the result into the other equation. Point For: (6111,4111,−411)(6111,4111,-411) Equation Form: x=6111,y=4111,z=−411x=6111,y=4111,z=-411
x=61/11 y=41/11 z=−4/11 x=61/11 y=41/11 z=-4/11
Need help solving this problem (2/7)^-2
Simone Reply
what is the coefficient of -4×
Mehri Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
Privacy Information Security Software Version 1.1a
Got questions? Join the online conversation and get instant answers!
Jobilize.com Reply

Get Jobilize Job Search Mobile App in your pocket Now!

Get it on Google Play

Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'A comprehensive outline of world history' conversation and receive update notifications?