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Near the end of the century Bulgaria again broke free from Byzantine rule and then Serbia was able to separate from Bulgaria to found the poverty ridden Serb Kingdom (1180).


The north half of Italy remained subject to the German Empire, but the Papal States had some semblance of self-government and Lombardy and Florence retained some local control. Venice continued to be independent while southern Italy and Sicily prospered under the excellent administration of the Normans. The people of the Two Sicilies had a free choice of religion under Roger I Guiscard and then Roger II after 1101. The latter even started a silk industry at Palmermo, bringing silk workers from Greece, after his expeditions there. Frederick Barbarossa entered Rome on his 4th expedition into Italy, in 1167, and enthroned an anti-pope Paschal III, but a pestilence broke out among his troops and he soon withdrew. The end of the predominance of knighthood was foreshadowed when an army of German knights met defeat to charging pikemen of the Lombard League of cities of northern Italy at Legnano in 1176. The League's subsequent military might was completely defensive with town walls and the massed pikemen infantry. (Ref. 279) At the end of the century the German Emperor Henry VI, with the help of Genoa and Pisa, which was then at the height of its power, wrested southern Italy away from Norman control. Genoa may have minted its own gold coins late in this century and other Italian cities soon followed. (Ref. 222, 260) Additional Notes

In the Italian Alps through Lombardy and Piedmont (as well as in Carinthia and Styria of Austria) the Carthusian monks were dominant in the development of pre-modern iron smelting through the use of strong drafts produced by the enormous water power of alpine streams. Then came a method of refining cast iron, by charcoal fire and the addition of scrap iron to produce steel (Ref. 260). In spite of political changes, the medical school at Salerno continued to function on a high level. Even epilepsy and psychoses were given somatic causes and treatment, although their organic bases were still denied by the followers of Galen. Salerno was a cross-roads of European, Arabic and Jewish medicine. Gerard, an Italian scholar of Cremona, went to Toledo, Spain to learn Arabic and by the time of his death in 1187 he had translated 71 Arabic works, most of them medical, including Avicenna's Canon and the works of Rhazes.

Central europe

In general Europe experienced another warm period during this century, as in the last one. (Ref. 224)


North German cities soon dominated the Baltic trade and new cities were formed father and farther eastward by the pseudo-crusades of the Knights of the Sword and the Teutonic Knights. (Ref . 137). Cultural advances speeded up civilization in the German realms. The first paper mill in Europe opened at Ravensburg. These areas also saw the mining of copper, silver, gold and iron. There were continued emperor - pope struggles with a temporary peace following the Concordant of Worms of 1122 when it was agreed that there would be a divided ceremony of investiture - one spiritual and one lay, thus assuring the concurrence of both pope and emperor in the choice of bishops.

Questions & Answers

anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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