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Throughout the peninsula the old Roman institutions were rather quickly abandoned and among the first to be dispensed with were those of law and medicine. For some reason not entirely clear, non-clerical physicians just ceased to exist. The Benedictine monks encouraged care of the sick but only through prayer could cure come, so St. Benedict forbade the study of medicine. (Ref. 49 , 125 )

Central europe

Germany and austria

The Slavic Wends had pushed into Germany as far as the Elbe River. West of the Elbe and Saal rivers were the surviving German tribes in the following locations, each retaining its own identity:

(a) Saxons in the north central region.

(b) East Franks along the lower Rhine.

(c) Thuringians between the Saxons and Franks.

(d) Marcomanni (Bavarians) along the middle Danube. They had migrated from Bohemia in this 6th century into an area of collapsing Ostrogoths.

(e) Suevi (Swabians) along and between the upper Rhine and upper Danube and along the northern Alps.

Of these tribes, the Franks were culturally of the greatest significance. Reinhardt (Ref. 177 ) says that this culture stands out as the fountainhead and pattern of the future German civilization. There is some disagreement concerning the language changes. Wells (Ref. 229 ) writes that the Franks were akin to the Anglo-Saxons in speaking a "low German" which later developed into Dutch and Flemish, but Reinhardt does not agree, stating that the Franks, Alemanni and Bavarians from A.D. 500 to 800 had the high German sound shift ("p" to "pf" or "f"; "t" to "ts", "z" or "s"; and "k" to "ch"), while Anglo-Saxon, Dutch, Flemish (Walloon) kept the original low or north German sounds. Clovis ruled the Franks until 511 and more about this dynasty will be found below under FRANCE.

By A.D. 560, Clovis' sons and grandsons had extended Frankish rule to take over dominance of Thuringia, Bavaria, Rhaetia and Alamannia in Germany as well as the Burgundian kingdom in Switzerland and southern France. There was little displacement of the native popuIations, however, and German and French developed as separate languages while the government remained in the hands of bishops and counts from the old Gallo-Roman aristocracy. The real power, however, remained with the Frankish army.

The migrating and raiding Avars (See HUNGARY and CENTRAL AND NORTHERN ASIA, this chapter) came in contact with the Franks on the Elbe in 562 at which time the Avar Khanate was perhaps one-half as large in north-south and east-west dimensions as the previous Hun Empire, but by A.D. 600 the Avars domain was almost as great as the Hunnish one, as they took over Hungary and most of Austria from the Gepids and the Lombards. By this time the Marcomanni had also reached lower Austria.

It is of some interest that falconry, although known from the Persian court as far back as 400 B.C., was really perfected in Europe by the Visigoths and Franks and became an important part of the hunting culture as well as an aristocratic pastime. (Ref. 122 )

Hungary

History does repeat itself in Hungary. Just as the Huns had previously set up headquarters in Hungary now a new war band, fleeing from upheavals in central Asia and known as "Avars", established themselves on the Hungarian plain and launched raids far and wide, pushing the Lombards into Italy, the Slavs into the Balkans and allowing the Bulgars (another nomad tribe) to come along the lower Danube. These Avars, who raided Constantinople as well as western Europe from this base, were a mixture of Mongolian Juan Juan, pushed west by the Blue Turks, and various nomad Turkish or Hunnish tribes which they had picked up on their journey through northern Iran and the Russian steppe. (Ref. 8 )

Questions & Answers

How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
How can I make nanorobot?
Lily
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
how can I make nanorobot?
Lily
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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