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By the end of this section, you will be able to:
  • Describe the prokaryotic and eukaryotic genome
  • Distinguish between chromosomes, genes, and traits

The continuity of life from one cell to another has its foundation in the reproduction of cells by way of the cell cycle. The cell cycle is an orderly sequence of events in the life of a cell from the division of a single parent cell to produce two new daughter cells, to the subsequent division of those daughter cells. The mechanisms involved in the cell cycle are highly conserved across eukaryotes. Organisms as diverse as protists, plants, and animals employ similar steps.

Genomic dna

Before discussing the steps a cell undertakes to replicate, a deeper understanding of the structure and function of a cell’s genetic information is necessary. A cell’s complete complement of DNA is called its genome    . In prokaryotes, the genome is composed of a single, double-stranded DNA molecule in the form of a loop or circle. The region in the cell containing this genetic material is called a nucleoid. Some prokaryotes also have smaller loops of DNA called plasmids that are not essential for normal growth.

In eukaryotes, the genome comprises several double-stranded, linear DNA molecules ( [link] ) bound with proteins to form complexes called chromosomes. Each species of eukaryote has a characteristic number of chromosomes in the nuclei of its cells. Human body cells (somatic cells) have 46 chromosomes. A somatic cell contains two matched sets of chromosomes, a configuration known as diploid    . The letter n is used to represent a single set of chromosomes; therefore a diploid organism is designated 2 n . Human cells that contain one set of 23 chromosomes are called gametes , or sex cells; these eggs and sperm are designated n , or haploid    .

Chromosomes from a human female are shown in a nucleus, scattered outside the nucleus, and arranged in numerical order, from 1–22 followed by X. Each chromosome is stained a different color.
There are 23 pairs of homologous chromosomes in a female human somatic cell. These chromosomes are viewed within the nucleus (top), removed from a cell in mitosis (right), and arranged according to length (left) in an arrangement called a karyotype. In this image, the chromosomes were exposed to fluorescent stains to distinguish them. (credit: “718 Bot”/Wikimedia Commons, National Human Genome Research)

The matched pairs of chromosomes in a diploid organism are called homologous chromosomes    . Homologous chromosomes are the same length and have specific nucleotide segments called genes in exactly the same location, or locus    . Genes, the functional units of chromosomes, determine specific characteristics by coding for specific proteins. Traits are the different forms of a characteristic. For example, the shape of earlobes is a characteristic with traits of free or attached.

Each copy of the homologous pair of chromosomes originates from a different parent; therefore, the copies of each of the genes themselves may not be identical. The variation of individuals within a species is caused by the specific combination of the genes inherited from both parents. For example, there are three possible gene sequences on the human chromosome that codes for blood type: sequence A, sequence B, and sequence O. Because all diploid human cells have two copies of the chromosome that determines blood type, the blood type (the trait) is determined by which two versions of the marker gene are inherited. It is possible to have two copies of the same gene sequence, one on each homologous chromosome (for example, AA, BB, or OO), or two different sequences, such as AB.

Minor variations in traits such as those for blood type, eye color, and height contribute to the natural variation found within a species. The sex chromosomes, X and Y, are the single exception to the rule of homologous chromosomes; other than a small amount of homology that is necessary to reliably produce gametes, the genes found on the X and Y chromosomes are not the same.

Section summary

Prokaryotes have a single loop chromosome, whereas eukaryotes have multiple, linear chromosomes surrounded by a nuclear membrane. Human somatic cells have 46 chromosomes consisting of two sets of 22 homologous chromosomes and a pair of nonhomologous sex chromosomes. This is the 2 n, or diploid, state. Human gametes have 23 chromosomes or one complete set of chromosomes. This is the n, or haploid, state. Genes are segments of DNA that code for a specific protein or RNA molecule. An organism’s traits are determined in large part by the genes inherited from each parent, but also by the environment that they experience. Genes are expressed as characteristics of the organism and each characteristic may have different variants called traits that are caused by differences in the DNA sequence for a gene.

Questions & Answers

what is ecology, ecosystem?
Nkeng Reply
what is digestive system
Lucky Reply
digestive system is the human syman system that icludes esopuges stomach o braking down of food in to useful substance to our body
samrawit
definition of biology basics
Ritu Reply
the potential energy of a molecule can be inquired by their number of?
Jesus Reply
what is the full meaning of RNA
Ayo Reply
ribose nucleic acid
Nikita
Ribonucleic acid
Jesus
discuss, describe at least three (3) methods that could be used to improve photosynthesis..
Marvel Reply
Improve the efficiency with which plants capture light Improve the efficiency by which plants turn light into energy The smart canopy concept develop crop planting schemes that increase the penetration of sunlight into lower-level leaves.
Jesus
what is osmosis
Aon Reply
movement of water molecule from higher to lower concentration through a semipereable membrene.
Dr
what of in the case of solute
Aon
osmosis is the movement of molecules from higher concentration region to lower concentration region through semi-permeable membrane.
Broad
in case of solute means that water moves from the region with lower solutes to the region with higher solute. so it is vice versa to water.
Broad
what are the hydrophilic and hydrophobic region of the plasma membrane?
Samuel Reply
hydrophilic in other word it called water loving and hydrophobic region other word is region that does not contact with water in the plasma membrane.
Broad
the phospholipids
Jesus
recognizing living things
Emmanuel Reply
Species A has 12 pairs of chromosomes and Species B has 11 pairs of chromosomes. Explain what occurs during mitosis and during meiosis in the hybrid that allows normal development and growth from zygote to adult, but causes the adults to be sterile.
Christina Reply
what is the origin of angiosperms?
Broad
unknown group of gymnosperms of triassic period.
Aditi
ouky but what about the concept of monophyletic and polyphyletic? where angiosperms is between that two concept?
Broad
Why does water move through a membrane?
Christina Reply
Explanation: Water can diffuse through the lipid bilayer even though it's polar because it's a very small molecule. Water can also pass through the cell membrane by osmosis, because of the high osmotic pressure difference between the inside and the outside the cell
Babar
How many bones are in the human skeleton
Treasure Reply
203
Oyeleke
206
Babar
it is about 270 bones at birth and decreases to 206 bones in adulthood.
Nkeng
procce of digestion of proteins a long human alimentarycanal
Carson Reply
This is accomplished by enzymes through hydrolysis.
Jesus
what are the properties of lipids?
Isiah Reply
They are: Fatty acids, fats, oils, waxes, phospholipid, glycolipids, steroids and some vitamins
Rachel
lipids are made  up of a glycerol molecule with three fatty acid molecules attached to it. 
Jesus
explain why a fresh water fish excrete ammonia
Leonard Reply
plz answer my question
Leonard
sorry i meant it has a nucleous unlike plant cells lol
Lailah
Ammonia is the end product of protein catabolism and is stored in the body of the fish in high concentrations relative to basal excretion rates. Ammonia, if allowed to accumulate, is toxic and is converted to less toxic compounds or excreted
Rachel
cartilagenous fish's are ureolitic they excrete the waste in the form of urea as there undigested food mostly forms urea in their digestive system n much of the urea iz stored in the of the cartilagenous fish's. hence they are not a edible, but boney fish's excrete ammonia as they form less amount o
Babar
i really find some stuffs hard u guys are guru's
Orji

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Source:  OpenStax, Concepts of biology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 29, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11487/1.9
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