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Employment in higher education

Colleges and universities in the United States employed more members of the faculty from the four major ethnic minority groups in 1997 than in 1995. The number of minority full-time faculty members increased by 9.5 percent in this two-year period, compared with gains of less than 2 percent for Whites and 2.8 percent for all faculty members. All four major ethnic minority groups achieved moderate to large gains in the number of full professors from 1995 to 1997. Overall, there was a 12 percent increase of minority faculty members at the full professor level during this period. Also, tenure rates for minority members of the faculty increased by 2 percentage points from 1995 to 1997. However, 75 percent of White members of the faculty received tenure in 1997, compared with 64 percent of minority faculty members (Harvey).

Men and women in all four ethnic minority groups showed increases in tenure rates for the two-year period. Hispanic women posted the largest increase, a gain of 4 percentage points. In addition, the number of minorities in full-time administrative positions increased by 3.1 percent from 1995 to 1997, largely because of the gains made by women.

Nationwide in 2000, African Americans, Hispanics, Asian Americans, and American Indians accounted for 11.2 percent of all college and university chief executive officers (Harvey).

The number of African American full-time faculty members increased by 3.3 percent from 1995 to 1997. Even with these small gains, African Americans continued to represent only 5 percent of all full-time members of the faculty in higher education. African Americans have made little progress in their proportional representation since 1993. African Americans continue to have the lowest tenure rate among the four major ethnic minority groups. In 1997, African Americans trailed Whites in tenure rates by 14 percentage points. In contrast, the number of Hispanic full-time members of the faculty increased by more than 14 percent from 1995 to 1997. This represents the largest increase of the four major ethnic minority groups. Among Hispanics, the number of full-time members of the faculty increased by 46.4 percent from 1989 to 1997. Also, the number of Hispanic full professors increased by 18.3 percent from 1995 to 1997—the largest percentage gain among the four major ethnic minority groups. However, Hispanics in 1997 continued to represent less than 2 percent of all full professors (Harvey).


When the nation was forced to redraw its political lines after the 1990 census to give Hispanics greater representation in Congress, the Congressional Hispanic Caucus grew from 11 members to 17. Unfortunately, despite the dramatic increase of 58 percent in the Hispanic population that was recorded in Census 2000, it appears that there will be only one additional member of the Congressional Hispanic Caucus in the next round of elections for Congress (Radelat).

In the corporate boardroom, Hispanics last year held almost two out of every one hundred board seats at Fortune 1,000 companies. That percentage has been rising roughly 10 percent a year since 1993 (Plasencia). However, in the workforce, a small number of Hispanic workers occupy managerial or professional positions. Hispanic employees tend to be limited to low-paying, low-benefit jobs in the service sector, the only jobs available to individuals with a limited education (The Latin American Research and Service Agency). And, while on-the-job injuries and illnesses have decreased nationwide, Hispanic workers are dying disproportionately in the workplace. The incidence rate for on-the-job injury and illness dropped 31 percent between 1992 and 2000. Also, the number of fatal workplace injuries dipped by 2 percent from 1999 to 2000 at the same time that overall employment increased. However, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics’ report on fatalities for 2000 shows that 815 Hispanic workers, including 494 foreign-born workers, died as a result of job-related injuries, an 11.6 percent increase from the previous year (Sixel).

Questions & Answers

what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
How can I make nanorobot?
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
how can I make nanorobot?
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Immigration in the united states and spain: considerations for educational leaders. OpenStax CNX. Jul 26, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11174/1.28
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