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This module provides an introduction to the doctest module.

Table of contents


This module is one in a collection of modules on Python designed for teaching ITSE 1359 Introduction to Scripting Languages: Python at Austin Community College in Austin, TX.

What you have learned

In previous modules, you have learned the basics of Python programming, control flow, classes and objects, input/output, and GUI programming.

What you will learn

In this and the following module, you will learn how to use the Python doctest module to test your Python programs.

Viewing tip

I recommend that you open another copy of this module in a separate browser window and use the following links to easily find and view the Figuresand the Listings while you are reading about them.

(Note to blind and visually impaired students: all of the Figures and Listings inthis module are presented in plain text format and should be accessible using an audio screen reader or a braille display. Note however that the requiredindentation may not be properly represented by an audio screen reader.)


  • Figure 1 . Simple interactive session.
  • Figure 2 . Output produced by the test file named Py1359_1720_01.txt.
  • Figure 3 . Output produced by the test file named Py1359_1720_02.txt.
  • Figure 4 . Output produced by the test embedded in the docstring.


  • Listing 1 . Contents of the test file named Py1359_1720_01.txt.
  • Listing 2 . Contents of the file named Py1359_1720_01.bat.
  • Listing 3 . Contents of the file named Py1359_1720_02.py.
  • Listing 4 . Contents of the test file named Py1359_1720_02.txt.
  • Listing 5 . Contents of the batch file named Py1359_1720_02.bat.
  • Listing 6 . Contents of the file named Py1359_1720_03.py.
  • Listing 7 . Contents of the batch file named Py1359_1720_03.bat.

General background information

According to The Python Standard Library -- 26. Development Tools ,

"The doctest and unittest modules contain frameworks for writing unit tests that automatically exercise code and verify that the expected outputis produced."

The material in this module is based heavily on The Python Standard Library -- 26.2 doctest -- Test interactive Python examples . According to that document,

"The doctest module searches for pieces of text that look like interactive Python sessions, and then executes those sessions to verify thatthey work exactly as shown."

Stated differently, the doctest module can be used to automate the execution of code that you might otherwise execute in an interactive session. However,instead of having the computer present the result to you, you specify the required result and the computer tests the required result against the actualresult and notifies you when the two fail to match.

Questions & Answers

How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
How can I make nanorobot?
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
how can I make nanorobot?
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
While the American heart association suggests that meditation might be used in conjunction with more traditional treatments as a way to manage hypertension
Beverly Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Itse 1359 introduction to scripting languages: python. OpenStax CNX. Jan 22, 2016 Download for free at https://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11713/1.32
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