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HTML5 is the fifth revision of the HTML standard. It provides various enhancements and is still work in progress. This module provides links to information about HTML5 which lead you into the topic in-depth.


The structure of a HTML5 document may be simpler than that of a HTML4 document. There is only one document type <!DOCTYPE html> . Older browsers interpret this fine as they do not know about the HTML5 document type and try to do the best they can to render the page. Newer browsers know how to interpret HTML5.

The Web Hypertext Application Technology Working Group (WHATWG) does not speak of HTML5. They call it just HTML without a version number.

Minimal document

<!DOCTYPE html><html><head><title>The title of the document</title></head><body>The text ...</body></html>
Simple correct HTML5 template (http://www.w3.org/TR/html5/semantics.html#semantics)
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?><html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml"><head><title>The title of the document</title></head><body>The text ...</body></html>
The same as above but in XHTML syntax

Html5 with css and javascript

In the strict sense HTML5 is the follow-up specification to HTML4. But people often mean more when they talk about HTML5. HTML5 used as umbrella term includes extended functions of CSS (CSS3) and JavaScript (ECMAscript version 5). With this it is possible to write complete web applications in one file.

Minimal template with css and javascript

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?><html xml:lang="en" lang="en"><head><style><![CDATA[ h1 {color: red;} ]]></style></head><body><h1>Beverages</h1><ul id="beverages"><li>Coffee</li><li>Tea</li><li>Milk</li></ul><span id="note"></span><script><![CDATA[ // JavaScript statements// This will be evaluated after the document has been loaded // making it possible to easily access DOM elements.var list = document.getElementById("beverages"); var listlength = list.children.length;console.log(listlength); var note = document.getElementById("note");console.dir(note); note.textContent = listlength + " types of beverages";]]></script></body></html>
Template in XHTML5 syntax demonstrating access to a DOM element

View the xhtml5 template locally

View the template in your browser. You then may save it and start changing it. Make sure it has the file extension .xhtml for IE9 to display a local file in IE9 mode. In addition Firefox and Opera still display it properly if the file name extension is .xml .


  • The document starts with a declaration that it is encoded as an XML file.
  • The root element is an <html>...</html> node. It has two daughter nodes: <head>...</head> and <body>...</body> .
  • The head contains the style information. It is contained in <style type="text/css">...</style> .
  • The actual data to be displayed is in the body part.
  • The CDATA tells the XML parser to treat the following code as data. This means that wedges ( <> ) should not be considered
  • The JavaScript code shows the method getElementById to access the Document Object Model (DOM). All HTML elements are accessible this way.
  • The JavaScript code is executed once at the end of loading the file.
  • The children method gives back all HTML elements of a particular parent HTML Element.
  • console.log(listlength) and console.dir(note) may be used for debugging purposes. The output will be displayed on the console accessible for example in Firefox 9 through 'Tools'/'Web Developer'/'Web Console'. Other browsers have similar tools.
  • This example contains all the CSS and JavaScript code. Most often this code is put into two separate files. Then two links in the main HTML file connect to them.

Display in firefox 9 with web console opened

Web console with minimal sample XHTML5 file

Msdn about ie9

MSDN : "Adding a <!DOCTYPE> pointing to an XHTML DTD does NOT influence whether a page is treated as HTML or XHTML. XHTML support for files on the web can only be triggered by the MIME type of the response from the web server. This is true both in IE9 and other browsers. This MIME type should be "application/xhtml+xml" (though you can technically use any supported XML mime type). Local files with ".xht" or ".xhtml" extensions will also be opened as XHTML".

More on dom access

Document Object Model

Further reading

Html5 in action

First chapter of Robert Crowther, Joe Lennon, and Ash Blue, HTML5 in Action, Manning, February 2014. Chapter 5 ; source code on github .

Comparison to other technologies

2011 - The Year HTML5 Won

Dive into html 5

on-line book by Mark Pilgrim; CC-BY-3.0 ; updated fork ; published on paper by O’Reilly.

Extended version of the template

Module anonymous functions has an example where a button is added to the XHTML template given in this module.

Xhtml5 editor

There are many editors for creating XHTML5 files. Netbeans for example may be used for this .

On-line editor

Mozilla thimble is an on-line editor for learning HTML5.

Html5 please

A web site with recommendations which HTML5 features are ready for use and under which conditions.

Html5 test

This web site has a browser feature detection test as well as references to the W3C standard for every feature.

Further reading specific topics

Local storage

HTML5 capable browsers have added a new local storage facility which allows to save data between subsequent visits of a web page. This feature is similar to cookies but with more storage capacity and it is better accessible.

How to write a game

A tutorial which shows (External Link)


(External Link) (written in HTML 5)


(External Link) and (External Link)

Microsoft internet explorer 9

Microsoft Internet Explorer 9 was released in March 2011. It adopted HTML5 to a large part, something other browser implementations had done before. Learn HTML5 (Internet Explorer Developer Center). IE9 Developer Tools . More about IE9 and XHTML .

Differences from html4

(External Link)

Mozilla developer network

HTML5 start page

Ibm developerworks

HTML 5 fundamentals


(External Link) . Modernizr is a JavaScript library which helps to detect if a HTML5 feature is supported in a web browser or not.

How well does a browser support html5?

(External Link)

Questions & Answers

How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
How can I make nanorobot?
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
how can I make nanorobot?
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Test collection. OpenStax CNX. Jul 20, 2012 Download for free at https://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11420/1.2
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