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Friction forces

When the surface of one object slides over the surface of another, each body exerts a frictional force on the other. For example if a book slides across a table, the table exerts a frictional force onto the book and the book exerts a frictional force onto the table (Newton's Third Law). Frictional forces act parallel to surfaces.

A force is not always powerful enough to make an object move, for example a small applied force might not be able to move a heavy crate. The frictional force opposing the motion of the crate is equal to the applied force but acting in the opposite direction. This frictional force is called static friction . When we increase the applied force (push harder), the frictional force will also increase until the applied force overcomes it. This frictional force can vary from zero (when no other forces are present and the object is stationary) to a maximum that depends on the surfaces. When the applied force is greater than the maximum frictional force, the crate will move. Once the object moves, the frictional force will decrease and remain at that level, which is also dependent on the surfaces, while the objects are moving. This is called kinetic friction . In both cases the maximum frictional force is related to the normal force and can be calculated as follows:

For static friction: F f μ s N

Where μ s = the coefficient of static friction

and N = normal force

For kinetic friction: F f = μ k N

Where μ k = the coefficient of kinetic friction

and N = normal force

Remember that static friction is present when the object is not moving and kinetic friction while the object is moving. For example when you drive at constant velocity in a car on a tar road you have to keep the accelerator pushed in slightly to overcome the friction between the tar road and the wheels of the car. However, while moving at a constant velocity the wheels of the car are rolling, so this is not a case of two surfaces “rubbing” against eachother and we are in fact looking at static friction. If you should break hard, causing the car to skid to a halt, we would be dealing with two surfaces rubbing against eachother and hence kinetic friction. The higher the value for the coefficient of friction, the more 'sticky' the surface is and the lower the value, the more 'slippery' the surface is.

The frictional force (F f ) acts in the horizontal direction and can be calculated in a similar way to the normal for as long as there is no movement. If we use the same example as in [link] and we choose to the rightward direction as positive,

F f + F x = 0 F f + ( + 8 ) = 0 F f = - 8 F f = 8 N to the left

A 50 kg crate is placed on a slope that makes an angle of 30 with the horizontal. The box does not slide down the slope. Calculate the magnitude and direction of the frictional force and the normal force present in this situation.

  1. Draw a force diagram and fill in all the details on the diagram. This makes it easier to understand the problem.

    Friction and the normal forces on a slope
  2. The normal force acts perpendicular to the surface (and not vertically upwards). It's magnitude is equal to the component of the weight perpendicular to the slope. Therefore:

    N = F g c o s 30 N = 490 c o s 30 N = 224 N perpendicular to the surface
  3. The frictional force acts parallel to the sloped surface. It's magnitude is equal to the component of the weight parallel to the slope. Therefore:

    F f = F g s i n 30 F f = 490 s i n 30 F f = 245 N up the slope

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
yes that's correct
I think
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
nanocopper obvius
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
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Source:  OpenStax, Maths test. OpenStax CNX. Feb 09, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11236/1.2
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