# 2.1 Fir filter design by frequency sampling or interpolation

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Since samples of the frequency response of an FIR filter can be calculated by taking the DFT of the impulse response $h\left(n\right)$ , one could propose a filter design method consisting of taking the inverse DFT of samples of adesired frequency response. This can indeed be done and is called frequency sampling design . The resulting filter has a frequency response that exactly interpolates the given samples, but there is no explicit controlof the behavior between the samples [link] , [link] .

Three methods for frequency sampling design are:

1. Take the inverse DFT (perhaps using the FFT) of equally spaced samples of thedesired frequency response. Care must be taken to use the correct phase response to obtain a real valued causal $h\left(n\right)$ with reasonable behavior between sample response. This method works for general nonlinear phasedesign as well as for linear phase.
2. Derive formulas for the inverse DFT which take the symmetries, phase, and causality into account. It is interesting to notice these analysis and designformulas turn out to be the discrete cosine and sine transforms and their inverses.
3. Solve the set of simultaneous linear equations that result from calculating the sampledfrequency response from the impulse response. This method allows unevenly spaced samples of the desired frequency response but the resulting equationsmay be ill conditioned.

## Frequency sampling filter design by inverse dft

The most direct frequency sampling design method is to simply take the inverse DFT of equally spaced samples of the desired complex frequencyresponse ${H}_{d}\left({\omega }_{k}\right)$ . This is done by

$h\left(n\right)\phantom{\rule{0.166667em}{0ex}}\phantom{\rule{0.166667em}{0ex}}=\phantom{\rule{0.166667em}{0ex}}\phantom{\rule{0.166667em}{0ex}}\frac{1}{N}\sum _{k=0}^{N-1}{H}_{d}\left(\frac{2\pi }{N}k\right)\phantom{\rule{0.166667em}{0ex}}{e}^{j2\pi nk/N}$

where care must be taken to insure that the real and imaginary parts (or magnitude and phase) of ${H}_{d}\left({\omega }_{k}\right)$ satisfy the symmetry conditions that give a real, causal $h\left(n\right)$ . This method will allow a general complex $H\left(\omega \right)$ as well as a linear phase. In most cases, it is easier to specify proper and consistentsamples if it is the magnitude and phase that are set rather than the real and imaginary parts. For example, it is important that the desiredphase be consistent with the specified length being even or odd as is given in Equation 28 from FIR Digital Filters and Equation 24 from FIR Digital Filters .

Since the frequency sampling design method will always produce a filter with a frequency response that interpolates the specified samples, theresults of inappropriate phase specifications will show up as undesired behavior between the samples.

## Frequency sampling filter design by formulas

When equally spaced samples of the desired frequency response are used, it is possible to derive formulas for the inverse DFT and, therefore,for the filter coefficients. This is because of the orthogonal basis function of the DFT. These formulas can incorporate the various constraints of a real $h\left(n\right)$ and/or linear phase and eliminate the problems of inconsistency in specifying $H\left({\omega }_{k}\right)$ .

To develop explicit formulas for frequency-sampling design of linear-phase FIR filters, a direct use of the inverse DFT is most straightforward. When $H\left(\omega \right)$ has linear phase, [link] may be simplified using the formulas for the four types of linear-phase FIR filters.

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
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da
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Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
what about nanotechnology for water purification
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
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Alexandre
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is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
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Damian
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
why?
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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