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3: Path is a straight line. Particle is accelerated due to electric force in the direction opposite to the direction as in case 1. Speed and kinetic energy of the particle increase by same amount as in the case 1.

4: Path is a semicircular curve of greater radius of curvature due to increased speed. Particle is accelerated due to magnetic force. This acceleration is centripetal acceleration without any change in speed and kinetic energy of the particle.

5: Path is a straight line. Particle is accelerated due to electric force in the direction opposite to the direction as in case 1. Speed and kinetic energy of the particle increase by same amount as in the case 1 or 3.

We see that the particle follows consecutive larger semicircular path due to increase in the speed at the end of semicircular journey. The resulting path of charged particle, therefore, is a spiral path – not circular.

Frequency of alternating voltage supply

What should be the frequency at which the electrical oscillator changes sign? As per the account given in the previous section, the particle is required to be accelerated after completion of every semicircular journey of charged particle in the Dee. Does it mean that electrical polarity should be changed twice for one revolution in the magnetic field? Answer is no. Though particle is speeded up twice in a cycle, it requires change of direction of electric field only once. One of the directions is the existing direction and other is the reversed or changed direction. See the figure. Count the numbers of “change of directions” involved and numbers of revolutions. There are 7 occasions each when electric field has one of two possible directions. On the other hand, there are 7 revolutions counted from the beginning. Clearly, numbers of changes in directions are equal to numbers of revolutions. This means that frequency of electric oscillator should be equal to frequency of revolutions.

Frequency of oscillator

Frequency of oscillator

From the perspective of energy also, it is required that energy is added up to the moving charge at its natural frequency. This is the principle involved in resonance phenomena. We can pump energy to a periodic or oscillating system by supplying energy in small quantity at the natural frequency of the system. Hence, frequency of electrical oscillator is :

ν = q B 2 π m

Note that periodic properties of spiral motion are exactly same as that of circular motion of a charged particle in magnetic field. The frequency at which the charged particle completes spiral revolution is independent of the velocity. It is a very important feature of motion of charged particle in magnetic field. So even if the speed of the particle is increased with every passage through the gap, the time taken to reach the gap consecutively is same. It is the core consideration here allowing us to have a fixed frequency of electrical oscillator for a given magnetic field or conversely allowing us to have a constant magnetic field for a given frequency of electric oscillator. Of course, these constant values are determined keeping in mind the specific charge (charge and mass ratio) and size of the cyclotron.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Electricity and magnetism. OpenStax CNX. Oct 20, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10909/1.13
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