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3: Path is a straight line. Particle is accelerated due to electric force in the direction opposite to the direction as in case 1. Speed and kinetic energy of the particle increase by same amount as in the case 1.

4: Path is a semicircular curve of greater radius of curvature due to increased speed. Particle is accelerated due to magnetic force. This acceleration is centripetal acceleration without any change in speed and kinetic energy of the particle.

5: Path is a straight line. Particle is accelerated due to electric force in the direction opposite to the direction as in case 1. Speed and kinetic energy of the particle increase by same amount as in the case 1 or 3.

We see that the particle follows consecutive larger semicircular path due to increase in the speed at the end of semicircular journey. The resulting path of charged particle, therefore, is a spiral path – not circular.

Frequency of alternating voltage supply

What should be the frequency at which the electrical oscillator changes sign? As per the account given in the previous section, the particle is required to be accelerated after completion of every semicircular journey of charged particle in the Dee. Does it mean that electrical polarity should be changed twice for one revolution in the magnetic field? Answer is no. Though particle is speeded up twice in a cycle, it requires change of direction of electric field only once. One of the directions is the existing direction and other is the reversed or changed direction. See the figure. Count the numbers of “change of directions” involved and numbers of revolutions. There are 7 occasions each when electric field has one of two possible directions. On the other hand, there are 7 revolutions counted from the beginning. Clearly, numbers of changes in directions are equal to numbers of revolutions. This means that frequency of electric oscillator should be equal to frequency of revolutions.

Frequency of oscillator

Frequency of oscillator

From the perspective of energy also, it is required that energy is added up to the moving charge at its natural frequency. This is the principle involved in resonance phenomena. We can pump energy to a periodic or oscillating system by supplying energy in small quantity at the natural frequency of the system. Hence, frequency of electrical oscillator is :

ν = q B 2 π m

Note that periodic properties of spiral motion are exactly same as that of circular motion of a charged particle in magnetic field. The frequency at which the charged particle completes spiral revolution is independent of the velocity. It is a very important feature of motion of charged particle in magnetic field. So even if the speed of the particle is increased with every passage through the gap, the time taken to reach the gap consecutively is same. It is the core consideration here allowing us to have a fixed frequency of electrical oscillator for a given magnetic field or conversely allowing us to have a constant magnetic field for a given frequency of electric oscillator. Of course, these constant values are determined keeping in mind the specific charge (charge and mass ratio) and size of the cyclotron.

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
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Source:  OpenStax, Electricity and magnetism. OpenStax CNX. Oct 20, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10909/1.13
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