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The Etruscans seemed to particularly like the painted pots and vases brought from Corinth in Greece and were soon imitating them on a massive scale. Near the end of this century, due to the acquisition of more metal resources, perhaps at the expense of Tarquinii, the city-state of Caere became enormously wealthy, covered about 375 acres and had a population of about 25,000. Saleable copper and iron allowed them to acquire massive quantities of gold from the Greek markets of Pithecusae and Cumae. There is a strong possibility that the Etruscan alphabet, an adaptation of Greek letters in use in the Greek markets, was introduced to Etruria by way of Caere.

At about this same time the city-state of Vetulonia apparently became another prominent Etruscan community, lying just northwest of Vulci and characterized archeologically by great mound tombs, some of which reached a height of nearly fifty feet. Large stone sculptures have been found in these tombs, consisting of both male and female figurines and apparently adaptations from Syrian originals. Bronze horse-buckles indicate much horse traffic. Jewel works with a special granulation process of applying tiny grains of gold were typical. Village amalgamation into a single city perhaps occurred just at the end of the century. (Ref. 75 )

There were Greek cities in Sicily and on the southern tip of Italy. In particular, there was Sybaris, a city of renowned wealth, situated in the toe of the Italian boot. Its inhabitants delighted in luxury and pleasures, features which gave rise to the term "sybarite", still in our vocabulary. It has only recently been located, now buried twenty feet deep in water soaked soil. The Carthaginians had a trading post at Motya in western Sicily, just after 700 B.C.

Central europe

This was an age of Celtic domination, but with gradually increasing pressure from Germanic groups descending from the north. It was the late Iron Age in Austria and people wore bracelets, anklets and decorations over their chests. Intricate designs in iron with piece interlocking with closed eyes, perfect animal figurines, etc. can be found in the collections from multiple excavations of this era. Celtic ornamentation was greatly influenced by Scythian modes and the latter also contributed a new concept of cavalry, including snaffles, two-part bits and movable side reins. (Ref. 91 )

Western europe

Spain and portugal

The Iberians in most of this area were overrun by the Urnfield Celts except in the south, where the Tarshish Culture persisted and resisted the Celtic Hallstatt and later La Tene Iron Age Cultures. Contact with Phoenicians and realization of the local mineral wealth, resulted in the development of the only really native unit in this Kingdom of Tartessos. Greeks also came to this area about 630 B.C., introducing olives

Trager (Ref. 222 ) credits the Phoenicians with bringing the olives to Spain
and grapes. Investigations in Portugal and Spain in 1975 and 1976 revealed stone writing in the Celtic Ogam, but using Libyan and Phoenician languages, indicating a fusion of Gaels and native Iberians with Semitic and Libyan sailors. Fell (Ref. 65 ) believes that it was from this area that mariners sailed on across the Atlantic to America at this time, and regardless of one's acceptance or non-acceptance of Fell's theories, there is definite archaeological evidence that the sailors of Tarshish sailed up the Atlantic at least as far as Brittany, to obtain Cornwall tin. Only limited excavation of the Tartessian urban developments have been made to date. (Ref. 136 , 88 )

France, netherlands and belgium, and british isles

This part of western Europe was now almost entirely Celtic. The Celtic languages had two large divisions which the Welsh Sir John Rhys (1877) called the Q-Celtic and P-Celtic, with the former using Q,K or Ch of ten where the latter used P or B. The ancient representatives of the Q-Celtic speakers were the Goidels (Gaels) and probably the Celts of Spain and Portugal, with the modern descendants being the speakers of Irish and Scots Gaelic and Manx. The ancient P-Celtic speakers were the Brythonic peoples of Britain, the Gauls of central and eastern Europe and the Picts of Scotland. Their descendants are the current Bretons of Brittainy, the Cornish and the Welsh. Of interest is the fact that while the P-Celts wrote using Greek or Latin letters, the Q-Celts originally wrote in a now defunct script called "Ogam", which had an alphabet of fifteen letters, all consonants and developed from a finger sign language. Later some tribes added more consonants and vowel signs. (Ref. 65 , 91 )


While Norway, Sweden and Finland remained in a Bronze Age culture, Denmark had both bronze and iron. This was a time of Germanic tribe growth, particularly in the latter country. Ty, in northern Jutland, was the alleged homeland of the Teuton tribe, while the Cimbrians are said to have originated in Himmerland. There is still no complete agreement on the relationship of the early Germanic and Celtic tribes. In ancient times they were often confused, and apparently there was not a great deal of difference physiologically. Language was supposedly the chief difference, but even with that problems arose with such tribes as the Teutones and Ambrones whose languages may have been mixtures with both Celtic and Germanic elements. (Ref. 91 )

Eastern europe

Southern Russia was dominated at this 7th century B.C. by the Scythians who finally absorbed some culture from the rising Persian civilization on one flank and the Greek cities of the western and northern shores of the Black Sea, on the other flank. Some elaborate gold sculptures of that time have been found in Scythian burial mounds. Northern Russia and the Baltic area remained as described in the last chapter. (Ref. 176 )

Forward to Europe 600 to 501 B.C.

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Questions & Answers

what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
How can I make nanorobot?
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
how can I make nanorobot?
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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