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At home, the Avis Dynasty continued with Manoel I the Great ruling until 1521, then Joao III, followed by Sebastian I (1557-78). The latter undertook a new religious war against the Moors and was killed in the process, ending the dynasty. The Avis had been good rulers and their empire had had good administrators so that Lisbon had become a center of wealth, luxury and a depository for Asiatic goods. The only cloud on the horizon had resulted from Manoel's borrowing from Genoese bankers to equip his Asian-bound ships. Interest on these debts and agents' dishonesty cut heavily into the trade profits and the kings did not do as well as others around them. (Ref. 279 )

As the century progressed black slavery, imperial war, corruption at home and other features began to lay the groundwork for decline. An earthquake, which killed 30,000 people in Lisbon in 1531 did not help matters. Following the lead of Spain, Portugal expelled her Jews and soon the Inquisition entered with consequences similar to those in Spain. In the dynastic struggle which followed the end of the Avis Dynasty, the Spanish, under the Duke of Alva, invaded Portugal and defeated a Portuguese contingent in the battle of Alcantara in 1580, near Lisbon, thus allowing the Spanish king, Philip II, to also become the Portuguese monarch, at least in theory. English, Dutch and French forces then began to attack the Portuguese overseas colonies. (Ref. 119 , 229 , 222 )


Louis XII died in 1515 without heirs and the Valois, Francois I, became king and entered in the intrigues of a complicated Europe. Within 8 months he had invaded Italy and defeated a seasoned Swiss mercenary army of the pope near Milan. Venice, still antagonistic to Emperor Maximilian, supported Francois' armies. (Ref. 291 ) These "Italian Wars" were actually the start of nearly 60 years of warfare of France with Spain, ending in the Peace of Cateau-Cambresis, in 1559. Since Spain was ruled by Charles V, after 1540 Francois entered negotiations that were designed as a three-pronged attack against the Habsburgs, whom he felt to be his greatest antagonist. The triad attack included: (1) Subsidies to German Protestants so that they could attack Charles V from the north. (2) Alliance with the Turks to attack Austria from the east. (3) Launching a campaign with the French army from the west.

The Holy Roman Empire did decline but this was certainly not in any way the result of Francois' manipulations. Actually the French king was held as a prisoner in Madrid by Charles for about a year (1525) and his children were held as hostages much longer. (Ref. 292 ) It is also true that Francois was so busy with women that he had very little time for administration. He lived lavishly to the extent that he impoverished his people. His sister Marguerite and his mother Louise d'Angouleme of Savoy were very influential in his government and the former was very tolerant religiously, protecting many Protestants as the Reformation began to arrive in France. In 1536 Francois I did occupy the Duchy of Savoy, but by the Peace of Cateau-Cambresis Duke Emmanuel Philibert re-obtained the Duchy, excepting that portion which had been taken by the Swiss.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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