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Introduction

What more could we want to know about the structure of an atom? We know that atoms contain positively and negatively charged particles, and that the number of these charges in each atom is different for each element. We also know that the positive charges are concentrated in a tiny nucleus, and that the electrons move around the nucleus in a space that is much, much larger than the nucleus.

However, some of the most important questions we asked in the previous Concept Development Study are still unanswered. Remember that we saw that carbon and nitrogen have very similar atomic masses. Now we can add that these elements have very similar atomic numbers, so their atoms have similar numbers of protons and electrons. But carbon and nitrogen are, in most chemical and physical ways, very different. Similarly, some elements like sodium and potassium have very different atomic numbers but have quite similar chemical and physical properties. It seems that comparing the properties of two different atoms is not very easy to understand just from comparing the numbers of protons and electrons the atoms contain.

To continue to understand the answers to these questions, we need even more detail about the structure of each type of atom.

Foundation

In this study, we will assume that we know the postulates of the Atomic Molecular Theory and our measurements of relative atomic masses. We know that an element is composed of individual atoms with identical masses, and we know that the atoms of different elements have different masses, which have been measured.

We will also assume that we know that structure of an atom, with a tiny, massive, positively charged nucleus surrounded by a much larger empty space in which electrons move. The positive charge on the nucleus is equal to the number of protons in the nucleus and, in a neutral atom, is also equal to the number of electrons moving about the nucleus. The number, called the atomic number, is unique for each type of atom. No two elements have the same atomic number, and amongst the naturally occurring elements, no atomic number is skipped: for every integer up to 118 we know an element with that atomic number.

In this study, we will need a very important observation borrowed from the study of Physics. We will use Coulomb’s Law to describe the interaction of charged particles. Coulomb’s Law is an algebraic expression which relates the strength of the interaction between two charged particles to the sizes of the charges on the particles and the distance between them. We can think of the strength of the interaction between particles as either the force that one particle exerts on the other particle or the potential energy which exists when the two particles interact with each other. We will focus on the potential energy, which we will call V . Let’s think of two particles, one with charge q 1 and the other with charge q 2 . These charges can be either positive or negative, depending on the properties of the particles. Let’s place the two particles a distance r away from each other. Then the potential energy of interaction between these two charged particles is:

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Concept development studies in chemistry 2012. OpenStax CNX. Aug 16, 2012 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11444/1.4
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