# 10.3 Fortran 90  (Page 2/5)

 Page 2 / 5

A = A + B

in lieu of:

DO J=1,M DO I=1,NA(I,J) = A(I,J) + B(I,J) END DOEND DO

Naturally, when you want to combine two arrays in an operation, their shapes have to be compatible. Adding a seven-element vector to an eight-element vector doesn't make sense. Neither would multiplying a 2×4 array by a 3×4 array. When the two arrays have compatible shapes, relative to the operation being performed upon them, we say they are in shape conformance , as in the following code:

DOUBLE PRECISION A(8), B(8) ...A = A + B

Scalars are always considered to be in shape conformance with arrays (and other scalars). In a binary operation with an array, a scalar is treated as an array of the same size with a single element duplicated throughout.

Still, we are limited. When you reference a particular array, A, for example, you reference the whole thing, from the first element to the last. You can imagine cases where you might be interested in specifying a subset of an array. This could be either a group of consecutive elements or something like "every eighth element" (i.e., a non-unit stride through the array). Parts of arrays, possibly noncontiguous, are called array sections .

FORTRAN 90 array sections can be specified by replacing traditional subscripts with triplets of the form a:b:c , meaning "elements a through b , taken with an increment of c ." You can omit parts of the triplet, provided the meaning remains clear. For example, a:b means "elements a through b ;" a: means "elements from a to the upper bound with an increment of 1." Remember that a triplet replaces a single subscript, so an n -dimension array can have n triplets.

You can use triplets in expressions, again making sure that the parts of the expression are in conformance. Consider these statements:

REAL X(10,10), Y(100) ...X(10,1:10) = Y(91:100) X(10,:) = Y(91:100)

The first statement above assigns the last 10 elements of Y to the 10th row of X . The second statement expresses the same thing slightly differently. The lone " : " tells the compiler that the whole range (1 through 10) is implied.

## Fortran 90 intrinsics

FORTRAN 90 extends the functionality of FORTRAN 77 intrinsics, and adds many new ones as well, including some intrinsic subroutines. Most can be array-valued : they can return arrays sections or scalars, depending on how they are invoked. For example, here's a new, array-valued use of the SIN intrinsic:

REAL A(100,10,2) ...A = SIN(A)

Each element of array A is replaced with its sine. FORTRAN 90 intrinsics work with array sections too, as long as the variable receiving the result is in shape conformance with the one passed:

REAL A(100,10,2) REAL B(10,10,100)... B(:,:,1) = COS(A(1:100:10,:,1))

Other intrinsics, such as SQRT , LOG , etc., have been extended as well. Among the new intrinsics are:

• FORTRAN 90 has vector reductions such as MAXVAL , MINVAL , and SUM . For higher-order arrays (anything more than a vector) these functions can perform a reduction along a particular dimension. Additionally, there is a DOT_PRODUCT function for the vectors.
• Intrinsics MATMUL and TRANSPOSE can manipulate whole matrices.
• RESHAPE allows you to create a new array from elements of an old one with a different shape. SPREAD replicates an array along a new dimension. MERGE copies portions of one array into another under control of a mask. CSHIFT allows an array to be shifted in one or more dimensions.
• SHAPE , SIZE , LBOUND , and UBOUND let you ask questions about how an array is constructed.
• Two other new reduction intrinsics, ANY and ALL , are for testing many array elements in parallel.

how can chip be made from sand
is this allso about nanoscale material
Almas
are nano particles real
yeah
Joseph
Hello, if I study Physics teacher in bachelor, can I study Nanotechnology in master?
no can't
Lohitha
where is the latest information on a no technology how can I find it
William
currently
William
where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
has a lot of application modern world
Kamaluddeen
yes
narayan
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
what about nanotechnology for water purification
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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