# 10.3 Fortran 90  (Page 2/5)

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``` A = A + B```

in lieu of:

``` DO J=1,M DO I=1,NA(I,J) = A(I,J) + B(I,J) END DOEND DO```

Naturally, when you want to combine two arrays in an operation, their shapes have to be compatible. Adding a seven-element vector to an eight-element vector doesn't make sense. Neither would multiplying a 2×4 array by a 3×4 array. When the two arrays have compatible shapes, relative to the operation being performed upon them, we say they are in shape conformance , as in the following code:

``` DOUBLE PRECISION A(8), B(8) ...A = A + B```

Scalars are always considered to be in shape conformance with arrays (and other scalars). In a binary operation with an array, a scalar is treated as an array of the same size with a single element duplicated throughout.

Still, we are limited. When you reference a particular array, A, for example, you reference the whole thing, from the first element to the last. You can imagine cases where you might be interested in specifying a subset of an array. This could be either a group of consecutive elements or something like "every eighth element" (i.e., a non-unit stride through the array). Parts of arrays, possibly noncontiguous, are called array sections .

FORTRAN 90 array sections can be specified by replacing traditional subscripts with triplets of the form `a:b:c` , meaning "elements `a` through `b` , taken with an increment of `c` ." You can omit parts of the triplet, provided the meaning remains clear. For example, `a:b` means "elements a through `b` ;" `a:` means "elements from `a` to the upper bound with an increment of 1." Remember that a triplet replaces a single subscript, so an n -dimension array can have n triplets.

You can use triplets in expressions, again making sure that the parts of the expression are in conformance. Consider these statements:

``` REAL X(10,10), Y(100) ...X(10,1:10) = Y(91:100) X(10,:) = Y(91:100)```

The first statement above assigns the last 10 elements of `Y` to the 10th row of `X` . The second statement expresses the same thing slightly differently. The lone " : " tells the compiler that the whole range (1 through 10) is implied.

## Fortran 90 intrinsics

FORTRAN 90 extends the functionality of FORTRAN 77 intrinsics, and adds many new ones as well, including some intrinsic subroutines. Most can be array-valued : they can return arrays sections or scalars, depending on how they are invoked. For example, here's a new, array-valued use of the `SIN` intrinsic:

``` REAL A(100,10,2) ...A = SIN(A)```

Each element of array A is replaced with its sine. FORTRAN 90 intrinsics work with array sections too, as long as the variable receiving the result is in shape conformance with the one passed:

``` REAL A(100,10,2) REAL B(10,10,100)... B(:,:,1) = COS(A(1:100:10,:,1))```

Other intrinsics, such as `SQRT` , `LOG` , etc., have been extended as well. Among the new intrinsics are:

• FORTRAN 90 has vector reductions such as `MAXVAL` , `MINVAL` , and `SUM` . For higher-order arrays (anything more than a vector) these functions can perform a reduction along a particular dimension. Additionally, there is a `DOT_PRODUCT` function for the vectors.
• Intrinsics `MATMUL` and `TRANSPOSE` can manipulate whole matrices.
• `RESHAPE` allows you to create a new array from elements of an old one with a different shape. `SPREAD` replicates an array along a new dimension. `MERGE` copies portions of one array into another under control of a mask. `CSHIFT` allows an array to be shifted in one or more dimensions.
• `SHAPE` , `SIZE` , `LBOUND` , and `UBOUND` let you ask questions about how an array is constructed.
• Two other new reduction intrinsics, `ANY` and `ALL` , are for testing many array elements in parallel.

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
why?
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
what does nano mean?
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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