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The break statement violates pure structured programming principles because it provides a second, nonstandard exit from a loop.

However, it is useful and valuable for breaking out of loops when an unusual condition is detected.

Continue statements

The continue statement halts a looping statement and restarts the loop with a new iteration.

while( count<30)


cout<<“Enter a grade: “;


if (grade<0 || grade>100)


total = total + grade;



In the above program, invalid grades are simply ignored and only valid grades are added to the total.

The null statement

All statements must be terminated by a semicolon. A semicolon with nothing preceding it is also a valid statement, called the null statement. Thus, the statement


is a null statement.


if (a>0)

b = 7;

else ;

The null statement is a do-nothing statement.

For loops

The for statement is used for repeating a statement or series of statements as long as a given conditional expression evaluates to true.

One of the main differences between while statement and for statement is that in addition to a conditional expression, you can also include code in the for statement

  • to initialize a counter variable and
  • changes its value with each iteration

The syntax of the for statement:

for ( initialization expression; condition; update statement){



In its most common form, the initialization expression consists of a single statement used to set the starting value of a counter variable, the condition contains the maximum or minimum value of the counter variable can have and determines when the loop is finished, and the update statement provides the increment value that is added to or subtracted from the counter variable each time the loop is executed.

The flowchart of the for statement is given below.

Flow chart of the for statement



int main()


int sum = 0;

for (int number = 2; number<= 100; number += 2)

sum += number;

cout<<“Sum is “<<sum<<endl;

return 0;


The output of the above program:

Sum is 2550


In this example, we have to solve the following problem:

A person invests $1000.00 in a saving account with 5 percent interest. Assuming that all interest is left on deposit in the account, calculate and print the amount of money in the account at the end of each year for 10 years. Use the following formula for determining these amounts:

a = p(1 + r)^n

where p is the original amount invested, r is the annual interest rate and n is the number of years and a is the amount on deposit at the end of the nth year.




int main()


double amount,

principal = 1000.0,

rate = 0.05;


<<"Amount on deposit"<<endl;

cout<<setiosflags(ios::fixed | ios::showpoint)<<setprecision(2);

for (int year = 1; year<= 10; year++)


amount = principal*pow(1.0 + rate, year);




return 0;


The output of the above program:

YearAmount on deposit

1 1050.00

  1. 1102.50
  2. 1157.62
  3. 1215.51
  4. 1276.28
  5. 1340.10
  6. 1407.10
  7. 1477.46
  8. 1551.33
  9. 1628.89

Nested loops

In many situations, it is convenient to use a loop contained within another loop. Such loops are called nested loops .

Questions & Answers

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The denominator of a certain fraction is 9 more than the numerator. If 6 is added to both terms of the fraction, the value of the fraction becomes 2/3. Find the original fraction. 2. The sum of the least and greatest of 3 consecutive integers is 60. What are the valu
1. x + 6 2 -------------- = _ x + 9 + 6 3 x + 6 3 ----------- x -- (cross multiply) x + 15 2 3(x + 6) = 2(x + 15) 3x + 18 = 2x + 30 (-2x from both) x + 18 = 30 (-18 from both) x = 12 Test: 12 + 6 18 2 -------------- = --- = --- 12 + 9 + 6 27 3
2. (x) + (x + 2) = 60 2x + 2 = 60 2x = 58 x = 29 29, 30, & 31
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Q2 x+(x+2)+(x+4)=60 3x+6=60 3x+6-6=60-6 3x=54 3x/3=54/3 x=18 :. The numbers are 18,20 and 22
Mark and Don are planning to sell each of their marble collections at a garage sale. If Don has 1 more than 3 times the number of marbles Mark has, how many does each boy have to sell if the total number of marbles is 113?
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Mark = x,. Don = 3x + 1 x + 3x + 1 = 113 4x = 112, x = 28 Mark = 28, Don = 85, 28 + 85 = 113
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x-2y+3z=-3 2x-y+z=7 -x+3y-z=6
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Solve for the first variable in one of the equations, then substitute the result into the other equation. Point For: (6111,4111,−411)(6111,4111,-411) Equation Form: x=6111,y=4111,z=−411x=6111,y=4111,z=-411
x=61/11 y=41/11 z=−4/11 x=61/11 y=41/11 z=-4/11
Need help solving this problem (2/7)^-2
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A soccer field is a rectangle 130 meters wide and 110 meters long. The coach asks players to run from one corner to the other corner diagonally across. What is that distance, to the nearest tenths place.
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Jeannette has $5 and $10 bills in her wallet. The number of fives is three more than six times the number of tens. Let t represent the number of tens. Write an expression for the number of fives.
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Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
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. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
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Source:  OpenStax, Programming fundamentals in c++. OpenStax CNX. Jul 29, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10788/1.1
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