<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >

The break statement violates pure structured programming principles because it provides a second, nonstandard exit from a loop.

However, it is useful and valuable for breaking out of loops when an unusual condition is detected.

Continue statements

The continue statement halts a looping statement and restarts the loop with a new iteration.

while( count<30)

{

cout<<“Enter a grade: “;

cin>>grade;

if (grade<0 || grade>100)

continue;

total = total + grade;

count++;

}

In the above program, invalid grades are simply ignored and only valid grades are added to the total.

The null statement

All statements must be terminated by a semicolon. A semicolon with nothing preceding it is also a valid statement, called the null statement. Thus, the statement

;

is a null statement.

Example:

if (a>0)

b = 7;

else ;

The null statement is a do-nothing statement.

For loops

The for statement is used for repeating a statement or series of statements as long as a given conditional expression evaluates to true.

One of the main differences between while statement and for statement is that in addition to a conditional expression, you can also include code in the for statement

  • to initialize a counter variable and
  • changes its value with each iteration

The syntax of the for statement:

for ( initialization expression; condition; update statement){

statement(s);

}

In its most common form, the initialization expression consists of a single statement used to set the starting value of a counter variable, the condition contains the maximum or minimum value of the counter variable can have and determines when the loop is finished, and the update statement provides the increment value that is added to or subtracted from the counter variable each time the loop is executed.

The flowchart of the for statement is given below.

Flow chart of the for statement

Example

#include<iostream.h>

int main()

{

int sum = 0;

for (int number = 2; number<= 100; number += 2)

sum += number;

cout<<“Sum is “<<sum<<endl;

return 0;

}

The output of the above program:

Sum is 2550

Example

In this example, we have to solve the following problem:

A person invests $1000.00 in a saving account with 5 percent interest. Assuming that all interest is left on deposit in the account, calculate and print the amount of money in the account at the end of each year for 10 years. Use the following formula for determining these amounts:

a = p(1 + r)^n

where p is the original amount invested, r is the annual interest rate and n is the number of years and a is the amount on deposit at the end of the nth year.

#include<iostream.h>

#include<iomanip.h>

#include<math.h>

int main()

{

double amount,

principal = 1000.0,

rate = 0.05;

cout<<"Year”<<setw(21)

<<"Amount on deposit"<<endl;

cout<<setiosflags(ios::fixed | ios::showpoint)<<setprecision(2);

for (int year = 1; year<= 10; year++)

{

amount = principal*pow(1.0 + rate, year);

cout<<setw(4)<<year

<<setw(21)<<amount<<endl;

}

return 0;

}

The output of the above program:

YearAmount on deposit

1 1050.00

  1. 1102.50
  2. 1157.62
  3. 1215.51
  4. 1276.28
  5. 1340.10
  6. 1407.10
  7. 1477.46
  8. 1551.33
  9. 1628.89

Nested loops

In many situations, it is convenient to use a loop contained within another loop. Such loops are called nested loops .

Questions & Answers

show that the set of all natural number form semi group under the composition of addition
Nikhil Reply
what is the meaning
Dominic
explain and give four Example hyperbolic function
Lukman Reply
_3_2_1
felecia
⅗ ⅔½
felecia
_½+⅔-¾
felecia
The denominator of a certain fraction is 9 more than the numerator. If 6 is added to both terms of the fraction, the value of the fraction becomes 2/3. Find the original fraction. 2. The sum of the least and greatest of 3 consecutive integers is 60. What are the valu
SABAL Reply
1. x + 6 2 -------------- = _ x + 9 + 6 3 x + 6 3 ----------- x -- (cross multiply) x + 15 2 3(x + 6) = 2(x + 15) 3x + 18 = 2x + 30 (-2x from both) x + 18 = 30 (-18 from both) x = 12 Test: 12 + 6 18 2 -------------- = --- = --- 12 + 9 + 6 27 3
Pawel
2. (x) + (x + 2) = 60 2x + 2 = 60 2x = 58 x = 29 29, 30, & 31
Pawel
ok
Ifeanyi
on number 2 question How did you got 2x +2
Ifeanyi
combine like terms. x + x + 2 is same as 2x + 2
Pawel
x*x=2
felecia
2+2x=
felecia
×/×+9+6/1
Debbie
Q2 x+(x+2)+(x+4)=60 3x+6=60 3x+6-6=60-6 3x=54 3x/3=54/3 x=18 :. The numbers are 18,20 and 22
Naagmenkoma
Mark and Don are planning to sell each of their marble collections at a garage sale. If Don has 1 more than 3 times the number of marbles Mark has, how many does each boy have to sell if the total number of marbles is 113?
mariel Reply
Mark = x,. Don = 3x + 1 x + 3x + 1 = 113 4x = 112, x = 28 Mark = 28, Don = 85, 28 + 85 = 113
Pawel
how do I set up the problem?
Harshika Reply
what is a solution set?
Harshika
find the subring of gaussian integers?
Rofiqul
hello, I am happy to help!
Shirley Reply
please can go further on polynomials quadratic
Abdullahi
hi mam
Mark
I need quadratic equation link to Alpa Beta
Abdullahi Reply
find the value of 2x=32
Felix Reply
divide by 2 on each side of the equal sign to solve for x
corri
X=16
Michael
Want to review on complex number 1.What are complex number 2.How to solve complex number problems.
Beyan
yes i wantt to review
Mark
16
Makan
x=16
Makan
use the y -intercept and slope to sketch the graph of the equation y=6x
Only Reply
how do we prove the quadratic formular
Seidu Reply
please help me prove quadratic formula
Darius
hello, if you have a question about Algebra 2. I may be able to help. I am an Algebra 2 Teacher
Shirley Reply
thank you help me with how to prove the quadratic equation
Seidu
may God blessed u for that. Please I want u to help me in sets.
Opoku
what is math number
Tric Reply
4
Trista
x-2y+3z=-3 2x-y+z=7 -x+3y-z=6
Sidiki Reply
can you teacch how to solve that🙏
Mark
Solve for the first variable in one of the equations, then substitute the result into the other equation. Point For: (6111,4111,−411)(6111,4111,-411) Equation Form: x=6111,y=4111,z=−411x=6111,y=4111,z=-411
Brenna
(61/11,41/11,−4/11)
Brenna
x=61/11 y=41/11 z=−4/11 x=61/11 y=41/11 z=-4/11
Brenna
Need help solving this problem (2/7)^-2
Simone Reply
x+2y-z=7
Sidiki
what is the coefficient of -4×
Mehri Reply
-1
Shedrak
A soccer field is a rectangle 130 meters wide and 110 meters long. The coach asks players to run from one corner to the other corner diagonally across. What is that distance, to the nearest tenths place.
Kimberly Reply
Jeannette has $5 and $10 bills in her wallet. The number of fives is three more than six times the number of tens. Let t represent the number of tens. Write an expression for the number of fives.
August Reply
What is the expressiin for seven less than four times the number of nickels
Leonardo Reply
How do i figure this problem out.
how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
why surface tension is zero at critical temperature
Shanjida
I think if critical temperature denote high temperature then a liquid stats boils that time the water stats to evaporate so some moles of h2o to up and due to high temp the bonding break they have low density so it can be a reason
s.
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
Got questions? Join the online conversation and get instant answers!
Jobilize.com Reply

Get Jobilize Job Search Mobile App in your pocket Now!

Get it on Google Play Download on the App Store Now




Source:  OpenStax, Programming fundamentals in c++. OpenStax CNX. Jul 29, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10788/1.1
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'Programming fundamentals in c++' conversation and receive update notifications?

Ask