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Since the responsibility for food safety rests with you, direct verification of systems is extremely important for Basic Level requirements. You should personally monitor activities on a regular basis and record your findings.

Food safety

When considering food safety, you must understand the difference between quality and safety.

Food Safety (Codex Standards)
Assurance that food will not cause harm when prepared and/or eaten according to its intended use.

Food safety refers to attributes that cannot be directly observed, but instead require laboratory procedures for their measurement. These procedures include microbiological techniques or chemical analysis.

Food quality refers to attributes that can be readily observed by sight, smell, or simple measurement (such as color or condition). Food quality is easier to assess than food safety.

Definition of a food safety hazard

Food Safety Hazard (Codex Standards)
A biological, chemical or physical agent in, or condition of, food with the potential to cause an adverse health effect.

Food safety hazards include bacteria, viruses, parasites, hazardous chemicals, and foreign materials that can cause an adverse health effect to a consumer.

Food safety hazards

In food safety management systems, hazards refer to conditions or contaminants in foods that can cause illness or injury.

It is important to understand that hazards do not refer to undesirable conditions or contaminants such as

  • presence of insects
  • spoilage
  • hair or dirt
  • violations of regulatory food standards not directly related to safety.

Biological hazards

There are a number of different types of biological hazards that can be present within food. These are typically microorganisms and include

  • bacteria
  • viruses
  • parasites.

Control points for biological hazards must be identified during the process and storage of food products. This can be done by using hazard analysis techniques.

Practical food microbiology

Microorganisms are small, living uni-cellular or multi-cellular organisms. They include bacteria, viruses, yeasts, molds, and parasites. These are not all necessarily bad for humans; in fact, many can be beneficial to humans.

There are different types of microorganisms:

  • helpful
  • spoilage
  • disease causing – pathogenic.

Helpful microorganisms

Helpful microorganisms can be added to foods or are found naturally in them.

In many cases, microorganisms are used in foods to help with preservation but can also be added to create unique flavors and textures.

Foods such sauerkraut and pickles utilize fermentation as a preservation process and use microorganisms to carry out this fermentation process. Other foods such as bread use fermentation as an essential part of their production.

Spoilage microorganisms

Spoilage microorganisms affect the quality of the product, not necessarily the safety of the food. It is usually very easy to indentify when a food product is affected by spoilage, by look or taste. There can be discoloration on fruit, molds on bread, or milk that tastes sour.

In some cases spoilage microorganisms can affect the safety of products. An example is that some fruits can decay by a mold called penicillium expansum . This mold produces a toxin that can affect humans.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Food safety knowledge network basic level requirements. OpenStax CNX. Dec 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11142/1.4
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