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Grade 8


Module 8

Food processing and utensils

Food Processing


To be able to describe the term processing in terms of the technological process.


The term processing covers a wide area. It has to do with the processing of materials and/or products into another final form or product. It entails the processing of anything, e.g. the processing of wheat into flour and then into bread, the processing of wood into furniture and the processing of material into clothing. In this module we will focus on food. In grade 9 we will focus on resistant materials (wood, metal, plastic and paper).

You will have the opportunity to plan and construct a food stall for the coming World Fair. The stall must represent a specific country and produce and sell the fast foods of that country. Before you can start, it is important that you obtain more information about kitchen utensils, safety, hygiene, first aid, measurement and the various food groups.

1.1 Define the term processing .

1.2 Give two examples of processing done in your town/area and give a brief description of each.

1.3 Use one of the examples in 1.2 and now describe the term processing in terms of the technological process. Use the terms design, make . . . . .

LO 1.5 LO 2.2


To be able to describe the utensils generally used in food processing, as well as the function of each.

  • During the processing of food you will require a variety of utensils. It is important for you to know what these are and how to use them with confidence for the right purpose.
  • Utensils can be divided into five main groups according to the function they perform. These main groups are:
  • Measuring utensils
  • Mixing utensils
  • Cooking utensils
  • Baking and frying utensils
  • VariousWrite down the name of the utensils which belong to each of the following five groups. Also write down the function of each utensil.
  • Group: VARIOUS
LO 1.10


Learning Outcomes(LOs)
LO 1
TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESSES AND SKILLS The learner will be able to apply technological processes and skills ethically and responsibly using appropriate information and communication technology.
This is demonstrated when the learner:
investigates:1.1 investigates the background context, the nature of the need, the environmental situation, and the people concerned when given a problem, need or opportunity set in a nationally relevant context;
1.3 develops and performs practical tests in the technological areas (Structures, Processing, and Systems and Control);
1.4 uses appropriate technologies and methods to:
  • collect relevant data from different sources and resources;
  • extract relevant data;
  • make meaningful summaries;use information to justify and support decisions and ideas;
designs:1.5 writes or communicates a short and clear statement or a design brief in response to a given identified situation for the development of a product or system;
1.6 lists product and design specifications and constraints for a solution to an identified or given problem, need or opportunity based on most of the design key words listed below:
    • people: age target market;
  • purpose: function;
  • appearance: colour, shape;
  • environment: where will product be used;
  • safety: for users;
  • cost: cost of materials;
1.7 generates several alternative solutions and writes notes, ideas that show some links to the design brief and specifications;
makes:1.9 develops a plan for making that outlines all of the following:
  • resources needed;
  • sketches showing the necessary dimensions or quantities;
  • all steps necessary to making the product;
1.10 chooses and uses appropriate tools and materials to make products by measuring, marking, cutting or separating, shaping or forming, joining or combining, and finishing different materials accurately using appropriate techniques;
1.12 uses safe working practices and shows awareness of efficient ways of using materials and tools;
evaluates: 1.13 tests and evaluates the products or systems with objectivity, based on objective criteria linked to the design brief, specifications and constraints, and suggests sensible improvements or modifications;
communicates: 1.15 presents ideas using two-dimensional or three dimensional sketches, circuit diagrams or systems diagrams that include all of the following features:
  • use of SA drawing conventions (e.g. dimension lines, labelling, line types, symbols);
  • notes to clarify and communicate design features and reasoning; enhancement of significant sketches like final solution drawings.
LO 2
TECHNOLOGICAL KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING The learner will be able to understand and apply relevant technological knowledge ethically and responsibly.
This is demonstrated when the learner:
structures:2.1 demonstrate knowledge and understanding of frame structures:
  • the use and application of basic structural components (columns, beams, arches, buttresses, struts, stays, guys, ties);
  • reinforcing techniques for frame structures (triangulation, webs and fillets, orientation and cross-sectional area and members);
  • how frame structures can be made strong (e.g. relationship between the size and the shape of the base, the centre of gravity and stability;
processing:2.2 demonstrates a knowledge and understanding of how materials can be processed to change or improve their properties by adapting them to suit particular purposes:
  • to withstand forces (tension, compression, bending, torsion, shear);
  • to increase strengths or life-span;
  • how specific properties suitable for packaging can be achieved.




  • The module deals with food processing. Seeing that only a few schools have the necessary facilities to cook food, a fast-food dish has been chosen as learners can prepare it at home and put it together in the classroom. It would be very helpful if a microwave oven were available during the production process. Learners must be encouraged to develop sound business principles during the course of this module. It is for this reason that entrepreneurship is emphasized. The module could also be linked to possible market days.

1.1 Processing can involve any material or product that undergoes a process in order to form a new product. That entails the processing, combining, colouring, packaging, etc. of materials and products.

1.2 Any example that is distinctive of your environment, e.g. grapes to wine, wheat to bread, etc. can be used.


  • Use the pictures for this activity. The pictures have been jumbled and must be organized in the tables that follow them, as indicated in this memorandum.
  • The function of each piece of equipment must also be written down.

Group 1: Measuring Utensils

Utensil(s) Function
1. Measuring spoons To measure small amounts of liquids or dry ingredients.
2. Measuring cup To measure small amounts of dry ingredients.
3. Measuring jug To measure liquids and dry ingredients.
4. Scales To measure dry and solid ingredients.

Group 2: Mixing Utensils

1. Mixing-bowl To mix cake mixtures and mixtures for scones, bread or biscuits.
2. Wooden spoon To stir or beat starch or milk mixtures; to rub ingredients through a sieve.
3. Spatula To fold stiffly beaten egg whites into a mixture; to apply icing; to turn flapjacks.
4. Dough scraper To scrape mixtures out of bowls, dishes and saucepans so that there is no wastage; to scrape leftovers out of plates and dishes before washing the dishes.
5. Balloon whisk To beat (whisk) eggs and other liquid mixtures.

Group 3: Cooking Utensils

1. Saucepan To cook, steam or simmer food; to make sauces or gravies; to cook jam.
2. Double boiler To cook food by steaming it, e.g. egg custard, rice or fish.

Group 4: Baking- and Grilling Utensils

1. Baking tray To bake scones and biscuits.
2. Bread and cake tins To bake cakes and bread.

Group 5: Sundries

1. Sieve To sieve flour and dry ingredients.
2. Colander To drain rice and vegetables, to wash lettuce and other vegetables.
3. Grater To grate vegetables, cheese, nuts, orange peel.
4. Kettle To boil water.

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
yes that's correct
I think
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
nanocopper obvius
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
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Source:  OpenStax, Technology grade 8. OpenStax CNX. Sep 13, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11052/1.1
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