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Extremely low frequency (ELF) radio waves of about 1 kHz are used to communicate with submerged submarines. The ability of radio waves to penetrate salt water is related to their wavelength (much like ultrasound penetrating tissue)—the longer the wavelength, the farther they penetrate. Since salt water is a good conductor, radio waves are strongly absorbed by it, and very long wavelengths are needed to reach a submarine under the surface. (See [link] .)

The picture of a submarine under water is shown. The submarine is shown to receive extremely low frequency signals shown as a curvy line from the ocean surface to the submarine in the ocean depth.
Very long wavelength radio waves are needed to reach this submarine, requiring extremely low frequency signals (ELF). Shorter wavelengths do not penetrate to any significant depth.

AM radio waves are used to carry commercial radio signals in the frequency range from 540 to 1600 kHz. The abbreviation AM stands for amplitude modulation , which is the method for placing information on these waves. (See [link] .) A carrier wave    having the basic frequency of the radio station, say 1530 kHz, is varied or modulated in amplitude by an audio signal. The resulting wave has a constant frequency, but a varying amplitude.

A radio receiver tuned to have the same resonant frequency as the carrier wave can pick up the signal, while rejecting the many other frequencies impinging on its antenna. The receiver’s circuitry is designed to respond to variations in amplitude of the carrier wave to replicate the original audio signal. That audio signal is amplified to drive a speaker or perhaps to be recorded.

Part a of the diagram shows a carrier wave along the horizontal axis. The wave is shown to have a high frequency as the vibrations are closely spaced. The wave has constant amplitude represented by uniform height of crest and trough. Part b of the diagram shows an audio wave with a lower frequency. The wave is on the upper side of horizontal axis. The amplitude of the wave is not uniform. It has an initial small rise and fall followed by a steep rise and a gradual fall in the wave. Part c of the diagram shows the amplitude modulated wave. It is the resultant wave obtained by mixing of the waves in part a and part b. The amplitude of the resultant wave is non uniform, similar to the audio wave. The frequency of the amplitude modulated wave is equal to the frequency of the carrier wave. The wave spreads on both sides of the horizontal axis.
Amplitude modulation for AM radio. (a) A carrier wave at the station’s basic frequency. (b) An audio signal at much lower audible frequencies. (c) The amplitude of the carrier is modulated by the audio signal without changing its basic frequency.

Fm radio waves

FM radio waves are also used for commercial radio transmission, but in the frequency range of 88 to 108 MHz. FM stands for frequency modulation , another method of carrying information. (See [link] .) Here a carrier wave having the basic frequency of the radio station, perhaps 105.1 MHz, is modulated in frequency by the audio signal, producing a wave of constant amplitude but varying frequency.

Part a of the diagram shows a carrier wave along the horizontal axis. The wave is shown to have a high frequency as the vibrations are closely spaced. The wave has constant amplitude represented by uniform height of crest and trough. Part b of the diagram shows an audio wave with a lower frequency as shown by widely spaced vibrations. The wave has constant amplitude, represented by uniform length of crest and trough. Part c shows the frequency modulated wave obtained from waves in part a and part b. The amplitude of the resultant wave is similar to the source waves but the frequency varies. Frequency maxima are shown as closely spaced vibrations and frequency minima are shown as widely spaced vibrations. These maxima and minima are shown to alternate.
Frequency modulation for FM radio. (a) A carrier wave at the station’s basic frequency. (b) An audio signal at much lower audible frequencies. (c) The frequency of the carrier is modulated by the audio signal without changing its amplitude.

Since audible frequencies range up to 20 kHz (or 0.020 MHz) at most, the frequency of the FM radio wave can vary from the carrier by as much as 0.020 MHz. Thus the carrier frequencies of two different radio stations cannot be closer than 0.020 MHz. An FM receiver is tuned to resonate at the carrier frequency and has circuitry that responds to variations in frequency, reproducing the audio information.

FM radio is inherently less subject to noise from stray radio sources than AM radio. The reason is that amplitudes of waves add. So an AM receiver would interpret noise added onto the amplitude of its carrier wave as part of the information. An FM receiver can be made to reject amplitudes other than that of the basic carrier wave and only look for variations in frequency. It is thus easier to reject noise from FM, since noise produces a variation in amplitude.

Questions & Answers

how can I read physics...am finding it difficult to understand...pls help
rerry Reply
try to read several books on phy don't just rely one. some authors explain better than other.
Ju
And don't forget to check out YouTube videos on the subject. Videos offer a different visual way to learn easier.
Ju
hope that helps
Ju
I have a exam on 12 february
David Reply
what is velocity
Jiti
the speed of something in a given direction.
Ju
what is a magnitude in physics
Jiti Reply
Propose a force standard different from the example of a stretched spring discussed in the text. Your standard must be capable of producing the same force repeatedly.
Giovani Reply
What is meant by dielectric charge?
It's Reply
what happens to the size of charge if the dielectric is changed?
Brhanu Reply
omega= omega not +alpha t derivation
Provakar Reply
u have to derivate it respected to time ...and as w is the angular velocity uu will relace it with "thita × time""
Abrar
do to be peaceful with any body
Brhanu Reply
the angle subtended at the center of sphere of radius r in steradian is equal to 4 pi how?
Saeed Reply
if for diatonic gas Cv =5R/2 then gamma is equal to 7/5 how?
Saeed
define variable velocity
Ali Reply
displacement in easy way.
Mubashir Reply
binding energy per nucleon
Poonam Reply
why God created humanity
Manuel Reply
Because HE needs someone to dominate the earth (Gen. 1:26)
Olorunfemi
why god made humenity
Ali
and he to multiply
Owofemi
stuff happens
Ju
God plays dice
Ju
Is the object in a conductor or an insulator? Justify your answer. whats the answer to this question? pls need help figure is given above
Jun Reply
ok we can say body is electrically neutral ...conductor this quality is given to most metalls who have free electron in orbital d ...but human doesn't have ...so we re made from insulator or dielectric material ... furthermore, the menirals in our body like k, Fe , cu , zn
Abrar
when we face electric shock these elements work as a conductor that's why we got this shock
Abrar
how do i calculate the pressure on the base of a deposit if the deposit is moving with a linear aceleration
ximena Reply

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