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One of the first skirmishes of the revolution took place in Boston in 1770, when colonists and British troops exchanged shots in the so-called "Boston Massacre". Three civilians were killed and two more died later, including a black man, Crispus Attucks. Who fired the first shot or threw the first stone? Following this episode a revolutionary conspiracy and a colonial underground was formed by James Otis, a Whig lawyer and scholar, and Samuel Adams, the genuine rabble-rouser. They formed committees of correspondence running clear down to South Carolina. In Virginia the headquarters were in a tavern and members included Patrick Henry and Thomas Jefferson. (Ref. 39 )

The first Continental Congress met on September 5, 1774 at Philadelphia with 55 members chosen by revolutionary conventions in 12 continental colonies. The Congress issued the Declaration of Rights and an agreement called "The Association" - a non-importation, non-consumption agreement regarding imports from Britain unless the Coercive Acts were repealed. The first true fighting of the war occurred in April, 1775, when General Gage set out to Concord to destroy patriot munitions. The famous stories of Lexington and Concord and later Bunker Hill, etc. are sufficiently well known by all to not require repetition here. Politically, the next step was the Second Continental Congress, which met in May of 1775. At about the same time Parliament passed an act prohibiting all manner of trade and commerce with the colonies. The latter countered with the Declaration of Independence in July, 1776, worded chiefly by Thomas Jefferson.

Features of the american revolutionary war

The war was actually not popular in America. The army was chiefly infantry regiments named after various colonies, where they had been recruited. Every line regiment had Negroes. The colonies could have provided a regular army of 100,000 but they could never have fed and clothed so many. The greatest number of men at any one time was 20,000, in 1778. Washington's army went hungry because of reluctance of farmers and merchants to exchange food and clothing for a Continental chit. The chief source of food was Connecticut, through actions of Governor Jonathan Trumbull.

Financing of the revolution

  • Foreign loan. 6.4 million dollars were borrowed from France, in addition to a direct grant of 2.6 million. John Adams got an additional loan from the Dutch
  • Domestic loans. 20 million dollars were raised by both interest bearing bonds and certificates of indebtedness for goods received
  • Requisitions in money or in kind, apportioned among states in proportion to the estimated population

All loans, domestic and foreign and the states debts were later repaid at par. The local currency depreciated, but a later French loan negotiated by Robert Morris saved the day.

Alistair Cooke (Ref. 39 ) asks the question: "How did a rag-tag army defeat one of the crack armies of Europe?" And then he gives the following answers:

  • Weaponry. The British used smooth-bore muskets that allowed a lateral error of 3 feet at 100 yards and used for mass "spraying" of close order troops. In contrast the American frontiersmen used the Pennsylvania flintlock, with double the barrel length and grooves (rifling) to make the bullet spin and stay on line They could put a ball in a man's head-at 150 to 200 yards
  • Guerilla hit and run warfare
  • The choice of Washington as commander in chief, as this brought Virginia into the war
  • The idealism of Ben Franklin and Thomas Jefferson spread among the people

Questions & Answers

how can chip be made from sand
Eke Reply
is this allso about nanoscale material
Almas
are nano particles real
Missy Reply
yeah
Joseph
Hello, if I study Physics teacher in bachelor, can I study Nanotechnology in master?
Lale Reply
no can't
Lohitha
where is the latest information on a no technology how can I find it
William
currently
William
where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
has a lot of application modern world
Kamaluddeen
yes
narayan
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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