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Final thoughts

Schools are the institutions expected to address deep-seated educational and social ills, from poor academic performance to violence to teenage pregnancy (Cuban&Usdan, 2002). Principals are the actors most likely to be held accountable for whether schools successfully attend to these difficult issues. Accordingly, in many major cities across the country, a message is being repeated, rhetorically as well as symbolically: Principals are fundamentally important to and ultimately responsible for school improvement and student achievement.

Under this prevailing logic, site-based principals are deemed accountable for a host of complex student challenges. The New York Times , for example, noted high rates of student absenteeism in some New York City schools and explained, “City officials said the responsibility for absenteeism lies chiefly with school principals, who are required by the state to submit attendance plans” (Medina, 2008, p. 2). In this instance, city officials may have symbolically distanced the Mayor from the student absentee issue, emphasizing it was a school-based problem, not a multifaceted economic, social, and cultural concern. The Times article quoted the Deputy Mayor, who explained, “You are going to have pockets of students and pockets of schools that have high rates of absence, and we can’t be afraid to go after that. Those principals will be held accountable for that” (Ibid.). The Deputy Mayor’s willingness to hold principals publicly accountable for student absenteeism may have signified city leaders’ willingness to improve schools and “fix” social problems no matter the tough actions required. By extension, such examples of the rhetoric and politics of urban principal accountability help ensure that principals are consistently positioned as ultimately responsible for solving vexing problems related to schools and students.

Urban school principal accountability is an attractive reform strategy with significant potential advantages. Notably, the demand for improved performance from principals may compel them to find new ways to elicit better results from staff and students (Ouchi, 2009). Moreover, given that individual schools are the standard unit for measuring academic performance under NCLB-related state accountability systems, it seems entirely appropriate that school district and reform leaders would focus on site-based leadership as a lynchpin for school improvement. Important questions regarding urban principal accountability remain, however. For instance, is putting principals’ “feet to the fire” through public rhetoric and symbols creating an uninviting image of the position, which may cause potentially good candidates to forgo pursuing the principalship? Also, can urban school district and reform leaders achieve an effective balance between directing tough talk and tough actions toward principals and providing encouragement, support, and stability principals need in order to effect enduring change? These are only some of the questions that we hope our study will inspire readers to consider and perhaps address in future writings.

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Education leadership review, volume 11, number 1; march 2010. OpenStax CNX. Feb 02, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11179/1.3
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