<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >
By the end of this section, you will be able to:
  • Identify the divisions of the lower limb and describe the bones of each region
  • Describe the bones and bony landmarks that articulate at each joint of the lower limb

Like the upper limb, the lower limb is divided into three regions. The thigh    is that portion of the lower limb located between the hip joint and knee joint. The leg    is specifically the region between the knee joint and the ankle joint. Distal to the ankle is the foot    . The lower limb contains 30 bones. These are the femur, patella, tibia, fibula, tarsal bones, metatarsal bones, and phalanges (see [link] ). The femur    is the single bone of the thigh. The patella    is the kneecap. The tibia    is the larger, weight-bearing bone located on the medial side of the leg, and the fibula    is the thin bone of the lateral leg. The bones of the foot are divided into three groups. The ankle portion of the foot is formed by a group of seven bones, each of which is known as a tarsal bone    , whereas the mid-foot contains five elongated bones, each of which is a metatarsal bone    . The toes contain 14 small bones, each of which is a phalanx bone of the foot    .

Femur

The femur, or thigh bone, is the single bone of the thigh region ( [link] ). It is the longest and strongest bone of the body, and accounts for approximately one-quarter of a person’s total height. The rounded, proximal end is the head of the femur    , which articulates with the acetabulum of the hip bone to form the hip joint    .

Femur and patella

This diagram shows the bones of the femur and the patella. The left panel shows the anterior view, and the right panel shows the posterior view.
The femur is the single bone of the thigh region. It articulates superiorly with the hip bone at the hip joint, and inferiorly with the tibia at the knee joint. The patella only articulates with the distal end of the femur.

Patella

The patella (kneecap) is largest sesamoid bone of the body (see [link] ). A sesamoid bone is a bone that is incorporated into the tendon of a muscle where that tendon crosses a joint. The sesamoid bone articulates with the underlying bones to prevent damage to the muscle tendon due to rubbing against the bones during movements of the joint.

Tibia

The tibia (shin bone) is the medial bone of the leg and is larger than the fibula, with which it is paired ( [link] ). The tibia is the main weight-bearing bone of the lower leg and the second longest bone of the body, after the femur. The medial side of the tibia is located immediately under the skin and is referred to as the shin.

Tibia and fibula

This image shows the structure of the tibia and the fibula. The left panel shows the anterior view, and the right panel shows the posterior view.
The tibia is the larger, weight-bearing bone located on the medial side of the leg. The fibula is the slender bone of the lateral side of the leg and does not bear weight.

Fibula

The fibula is the slender bone located on the lateral side of the leg (see [link] ). The fibula does not bear weight. It serves primarily for muscle attachments and thus is largely surrounded by muscles. The bony projections at the bottom of the tibia and fibula are often mistakenly referred to as the ankle bones, but these visible projections are not part of the ankle bones.

Tarsal bones

The ankle is formed by seven tarsal bones ( [link] ). The most superior bone is the talus    . This has a relatively square-shaped, upper surface that articulates with the tibia and fibula to form the ankle joint    . Inferiorly, the talus articulates with the calcaneus    (heel bone), the largest bone of the foot, which forms the heel.

Bones of the foot

This figure shows the bones of the foot. The left panel shows the superior view, the top right panel shows the medial view, and the bottom right panel shows the lateral view.
The bones of the foot are divided into three groups. The posterior foot is formed by the seven tarsal bones. The mid-foot has the five metatarsal bones. The toes contain the phalanges.

Metatarsal bones

The anterior half of the foot is formed by the five metatarsal bones, which are located between the tarsal bones of the posterior foot and the phalanges of the toes (see [link] ). The first metatarsal bone is shorter and thicker than the others. The second metatarsal is the longest. The heads of the metatarsal bones also rest on the ground and form the ball (anterior end) of the foot.

Phalanges

The toes contain a total of 14 phalanx bones (phalanges), arranged in a similar manner as the phalanges of the fingers (see [link] ). The big toe has two phalanx bones. The remaining toes all have 3 phalanges.

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
Privacy Information Security Software Version 1.1a
Good
Got questions? Join the online conversation and get instant answers!
Jobilize.com Reply

Get the best Algebra and trigonometry course in your pocket!





Source:  OpenStax, Skeletal system. OpenStax CNX. Apr 17, 2015 Download for free at https://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11779/1.1
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'Skeletal system' conversation and receive update notifications?

Ask