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By the end of this section, you will be able to:
  • Identify the divisions of the lower limb and describe the bones of each region
  • Describe the bones and bony landmarks that articulate at each joint of the lower limb

Like the upper limb, the lower limb is divided into three regions. The thigh    is that portion of the lower limb located between the hip joint and knee joint. The leg    is specifically the region between the knee joint and the ankle joint. Distal to the ankle is the foot    . The lower limb contains 30 bones. These are the femur, patella, tibia, fibula, tarsal bones, metatarsal bones, and phalanges (see [link] ). The femur    is the single bone of the thigh. The patella    is the kneecap and articulates with the distal femur. The tibia    is the larger, weight-bearing bone located on the medial side of the leg, and the fibula    is the thin bone of the lateral leg. The bones of the foot are divided into three groups. The posterior portion of the foot is formed by a group of seven bones, each of which is known as a tarsal bone    , whereas the mid-foot contains five elongated bones, each of which is a metatarsal bone    . The toes contain 14 small bones, each of which is a phalanx bone of the foot    .


The femur, or thigh bone, is the single bone of the thigh region ( [link] ). It is the longest and strongest bone of the body, and accounts for approximately one-quarter of a person’s total height. The rounded, proximal end is the head of the femur    , which articulates with the acetabulum of the hip bone to form the hip joint    . The fovea capitis    is a minor indentation on the medial side of the femoral head that serves as the site of attachment for the ligament of the head of the femur    . This ligament spans the femur and acetabulum, but is weak and provides little support for the hip joint. It does, however, carry an important artery that supplies the head of the femur.

Femur and patella

This diagram shows the bones of the femur and the patella. The left panel shows the anterior view, and the right panel shows the posterior view.
The femur is the single bone of the thigh region. It articulates superiorly with the hip bone at the hip joint, and inferiorly with the tibia at the knee joint. The patella only articulates with the distal end of the femur.

The narrowed region below the head is the neck of the femur    . This is a common area for fractures of the femur. The greater trochanter    is the large, upward, bony projection located above the base of the neck. Multiple muscles that act across the hip joint attach to the greater trochanter, which, because of its projection from the femur, gives additional leverage to these muscles. The greater trochanter can be felt just under the skin on the lateral side of your upper thigh. The lesser trochanter    is a small, bony prominence that lies on the medial aspect of the femur, just below the neck. A single, powerful muscle attaches to the lesser trochanter. Running between the greater and lesser trochanters on the anterior side of the femur is the roughened intertrochanteric line    . The trochanters are also connected on the posterior side of the femur by the larger intertrochanteric crest    .

The elongated shaft of the femur    has a slight anterior bowing or curvature. At its proximal end, the posterior shaft has the gluteal tuberosity    , a roughened area extending inferiorly from the greater trochanter. More inferiorly, the gluteal tuberosity becomes continuous with the linea aspera    (“rough line”). This is the roughened ridge that passes distally along the posterior side of the mid-femur. Multiple muscles of the hip and thigh regions make long, thin attachments to the femur along the linea aspera.

Questions & Answers

How do you differentiate Haversian canal and Volkmann canal?
Holly Reply
These are differentiated based on location. Haversian canal are present right in the middle of the osteon. the Volkmann canals are located to the sides of Haversian canal and their blood vessels and nerve fibers invade deep into spongy bone in long bones.
thank you
What are coronal arteries?
The coronary arteries/veins are the group of arteries and veins that supplies the myocardium of the heart.
What is augment
Safia Reply
I don't know
Google works wonders at answering questions..
how to identify tissues cells under a microscope
Carla Reply
any advice on how to identify tissue cells under a microscope?
structural and function of the living part
What is homeostasis
Haji Reply
ability of living organisms to adjust it internal environment to maintain a stable equilibrium
how to identify tissues cells under a microscope
what is the anatomy
aamina Reply
anatomy is the branch of science concerned with the bodily structure of humans animals and other living organisms, especially as revealed by dissection and the separation of parts.
what are silhouettes
Magret Reply
is dis Medical term?
but I don't know what it means
silhouette outline of a figure. The sharpness of the silhouette is a function of the shape, size and density of the object. This is most marked in radiography. basketball-shaped silhouette the enlarged cardiac outline seen in the dorsal-ventral view of the thorax in a dog with chronic pericardial
it's the first stage of wound healing that involves vasoconstriction platelet plug formation and blood clotting
Levels of complexity
sorry that was fast hemostasis
Anti there is homeostasis and haemostasis
yes , homeostasis is the abiltity of a living organism to adjust it environment to maintain a stable equilibrium
Thank you Alice, how about Haemostasis?
hemostasis is the process of regeneration of brown blood vessels to prevent bleeding from occurring. Hemostasis includes vasoconstriction by the tunica media, plalet plug formation to prevent escaping of blood out of the vessel, and blood clotting which Involves the deposit of fibrin into the plug.
broken blood vessels*
is it true, suppose if a person does something wrong like having bad habitat. Is there any connection to the kids that person going to give birth to?
That is a very interesting question! Their has been positive correlations in data about specific behaviors occuring between parents and children. For example, alcohol addiction has been shown to be a possible trait of behavior to be passed down to generations by evaluating genes.
Another example is that certain individuals are more prone to mental disorders like severe depression than others based on genetics. However, also keep in mind that the environment in which you are surrounded daily plays a part in developing specific behaviors.
why are postsynaptic ganglionic neurons unmyelinated
Callie Reply
Postganglionic motor neurons are unmyelinated because the lack myelin sheath. The myelin sheath on the peripheral nervous system is composed of Schwann cells wrapped around the axon inside the endoneurium.
they lack*
Postganglionic (and preganglionic) motor neurons belong to the division of the autonomic nervous system. In contrast, the somatic nervous system contains only one long thick myelinated somatic presynaptic motor neuron.
anatomy defination in urdu
Atif Reply
human body largest organ.....
jasveer Reply
liver and skin
by mass is liver but externally is de skin
all answers Are correct
liver is the largest gland of the body but skin is the largest organ of the body
so please what is the answer now
afcous skin.because difference between Gland and organ
Only the skin
The largest organ is the skin and the liver is a gland
skin is the largest organ of the body
it's the skin
skin 100%
largest organ- liver largest system- Skin
largest organ is skin because it covers the rest of the organs
liver right answers
liver is largest gland
skin is largest organ liver is largest gland femur is largest bone thyroid gland is largest endocrine gland seratus muscle is largest muscle
sciatic nerve is largest nerve
portal vein is largest vein
GIT is largest tube in body
explain about cerebrum cereblum and pons medulla
Nervous system anotomy and physiology
skin is the human body's largest organ
@Tanveer, the cerebrum consists of the cerebral cortex, corpus callosum, hippocampus, and basal ganglia. The cerebellum is located inferior to the occipital lobe. The pons and medulla are part of the lower brainstem.
The cerebral cortex are divided into 4 lobes and control functions such as: thinking, learning, speech, sensory perception, motor functions, hearing and vision, etc. The cerebral cortex is mainly present only in mammals due to evolution. The hippocampus plays a main role in memory formation.
The cerebellum works together with the motor cortex and other parts of the brain to coordinate and fine tune muscular activity. The pons and medulla control autonomic functions such as: sleep, respiration, swallowing, vomiting, heart rate, vasomotor control and more other things.
skin hai friend
what is the biliary tract
The biliary tract involves the liver, gallbladder, and bile duct. Certain liver cells (hepatocytes) synthesize bile salts derived from cholesterol in response to Secretin hormone. The gallbladder stores the bile. Gallbladder releases bile to the bile duct in response to Cholecystokinin hormone.
The role of bile is to emulsify fats so that they can be easily broken down and absorbed by the enterocytes into the lacteal vessels.
what is the difference between negative feedback loop and positive feedback loop
what is cholesterol
unsaturated fats
so what is the main purpose of anomaly
Cholesterol is a waxy substance your body uses to protect nerves, make cell tissues, and produce certain hormones.
Cholesterol is a type of lipid and it is a nonpolar molecule. The molecule is mainly composed of hydrocarbon chains. Cholesterol is synthesized in the smooth endoplasmic reticulum in eukaryotic cells, and is the main building block material for steroids, Vit D, and bile salts.
Negative feedback loop reverses any change back to its set point. For ex, when your internal body temperature rises above 98.6 F, your hypothalamus triggers your dermal blood vessels to dilate and activate sweat glands through sympathetic motor nerves so you can sweat and cool off back to 98.6 F.
Positive feedback loop amplifies a change. For ex, during labor, oxytocin is released continuously in a positive feedback loop from the posterior pituitary gland to stimulate contraction of the myometrium so the baby can come out.
define homeostasis and explain it's importants
Adusei Reply
define the important life processes of humans
how the bone marrow transplantation is done?
what is homeostasis
julie Reply
internal temperature of body
Homeostasis is the internal constancy in which your body tries to maintain for optimal cellular functioning. For example, your body tries to maintain an internal body temperature of about 98.6F for optimal functioning of your body.
If a prolonged lost of homeostasis occurs, death of the organism will be the outcome.
Another example of homeostasis is that your body tries to maintain a specific blood sugar level, so that your cells can undergo constant cellular respiration and keep you alive.
homeostasis is the fairly constant internal changes of an environment (your internal environment).The temperature of a body must be kept between the range of 37.5°c
which tissue is more sensitive
Rit Reply
to what?
myasthenia gravis?
Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune disease in which your own antibodies (produced by plasma cells) attack and inhibit nicotinic receptors at the neuromuscular junction.
As a result, acetylcholine will not bind to nicotinic receptors and now action potential is produced on the sarcolema. If no AP is produce, then there is no contraction of the muscle. For a long period of time, this will result in atrophy and muscle weakness.
and no action potential*
explain types of hypertension
Juli Reply
What is bulbar paralysis?
Roshni Reply
how can make penis larger
Marwat Reply
epithelial tissue connective tissue muscle tissue nervous tissue
Eliham Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Anatomy & Physiology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 04, 2016 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11496/1.8
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