<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >
By the end of this section, you will be able to:
  • Identify the divisions of the lower limb and describe the bones of each region
  • Describe the bones and bony landmarks that articulate at each joint of the lower limb

Like the upper limb, the lower limb is divided into three regions. The thigh    is that portion of the lower limb located between the hip joint and knee joint. The leg    is specifically the region between the knee joint and the ankle joint. Distal to the ankle is the foot    . The lower limb contains 30 bones. These are the femur, patella, tibia, fibula, tarsal bones, metatarsal bones, and phalanges (see [link] ). The femur    is the single bone of the thigh. The patella    is the kneecap and articulates with the distal femur. The tibia    is the larger, weight-bearing bone located on the medial side of the leg, and the fibula    is the thin bone of the lateral leg. The bones of the foot are divided into three groups. The posterior portion of the foot is formed by a group of seven bones, each of which is known as a tarsal bone    , whereas the mid-foot contains five elongated bones, each of which is a metatarsal bone    . The toes contain 14 small bones, each of which is a phalanx bone of the foot    .

Femur

The femur, or thigh bone, is the single bone of the thigh region ( [link] ). It is the longest and strongest bone of the body, and accounts for approximately one-quarter of a person’s total height. The rounded, proximal end is the head of the femur    , which articulates with the acetabulum of the hip bone to form the hip joint    . The fovea capitis    is a minor indentation on the medial side of the femoral head that serves as the site of attachment for the ligament of the head of the femur    . This ligament spans the femur and acetabulum, but is weak and provides little support for the hip joint. It does, however, carry an important artery that supplies the head of the femur.

Femur and patella

This diagram shows the bones of the femur and the patella. The left panel shows the anterior view, and the right panel shows the posterior view.
The femur is the single bone of the thigh region. It articulates superiorly with the hip bone at the hip joint, and inferiorly with the tibia at the knee joint. The patella only articulates with the distal end of the femur.

The narrowed region below the head is the neck of the femur    . This is a common area for fractures of the femur. The greater trochanter    is the large, upward, bony projection located above the base of the neck. Multiple muscles that act across the hip joint attach to the greater trochanter, which, because of its projection from the femur, gives additional leverage to these muscles. The greater trochanter can be felt just under the skin on the lateral side of your upper thigh. The lesser trochanter    is a small, bony prominence that lies on the medial aspect of the femur, just below the neck. A single, powerful muscle attaches to the lesser trochanter. Running between the greater and lesser trochanters on the anterior side of the femur is the roughened intertrochanteric line    . The trochanters are also connected on the posterior side of the femur by the larger intertrochanteric crest    .

The elongated shaft of the femur    has a slight anterior bowing or curvature. At its proximal end, the posterior shaft has the gluteal tuberosity    , a roughened area extending inferiorly from the greater trochanter. More inferiorly, the gluteal tuberosity becomes continuous with the linea aspera    (“rough line”). This is the roughened ridge that passes distally along the posterior side of the mid-femur. Multiple muscles of the hip and thigh regions make long, thin attachments to the femur along the linea aspera.

Questions & Answers

musah was admitted to your ward yesterday with traumatic amputation of the right thump . he complained this morning that he has not passed enough urine. Questions. 1) will you consider his complain to be pathological or physiological?. 2) in less than three sentences, justify your opinion. 3) Apply your understanding of the renin- angiotensin-aldosterone system to explain the factors and mechanisms accounting for his complains.
Ellen Reply
the mineral salt which break up a large portion of bone tissue is
Aurora Reply
calcium
Calcium
Sawda
cholesterol and triglycerides in simplest terms are fats (lipid) found in blood
Roy Reply
calcium is important for bone density and development. it also helps for safe / normal blood clotting, blood circulation to and from the heart, and muscle movement
Roy
what is muscle tissue
Rifat Reply
the muscle tissue is one of the 4 basic tissues in our body and is responsible for movement of our body
What Is difference between Ovary and Ovum
Sawda
ovary is female reproductive organ while ovum is a female gamete formed from ovary
Ubaidah
Thank You
Sawda
What Is Cholesterol and Triglycerides
Sawda
the mineral salt which break up a large portion of bone tissue
Aurora
Hi Be Home Be safe , how are things doing hope all is well
Natarajan Reply
3 longitudinal bands of smooth muscles found in large intestines
Jamia
what's is sutures
Nimeshka Reply
what would I like to know
Roy Reply
anything u can tell me
Roy
anatomy mins
Manish
when two or more bones meet.
Joseph
Joints
Anita
I am interested in learning but it is a little threatening corona virus covid 19
Samnang Reply
I don't know about Corona virus
Vicky
what would you like to know?
Mbasa
what is a peripheral protien
Ayesha Reply
actually its located in between the lipid layer, it does not specify if it's closer to the inside or the outside of the cell
Justin
It is protein found in lipid bilayer but found attached with Cytoplasm aspect
Jamal
what are the collection of blood.?
sunshine Reply
Effect of exercise on different body systems?
Rania Reply
what is ambroylogy
kashif Reply
embryology..is the biological studing of embryos
Ava
I know biological study but embryology mean any pic, example?
kashif
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/b6/Comparative_embryology_of_the_vertebrates%3B_with_2057_drawings_and_photos._grouped_as_380_illus_%281953%29_%2820482505100%29.jpg
Ava
I like to learn about medical and more
Samnang
what is the function of the blood
Yolanda Reply
Transporting of oxygen,fighting against germs, forms clotting ,distribution of nutrients and minerals through out the body ,
Nimco
Transportation of gases such as oxygen and water blance and carrei metabolites to the exit organ and Acid base equilibrium and clotting blood and Immune
Jamal
What are Gross and microscopicAnatomy
Waiswa Reply
study of the internal structures of a human being
Niyi
gross anatomy is the study of body parts that can be seen with our naked eyes while micro anatomy involves the study of body parts that cannot be seen with our naked eyes but with the aid of a microscope
Oppong
gross means examination of specimen or tissue with bare (unaided ) eye while microscopic means examination of same with the help of microscope
Jamia
what is physiology
Waiswa Reply
what are blood pressure
Waiswa
physiology is the study of the normal functions of organs
Romaissaa
Blood pressure is a when systolic phase is 190 and diastolic phase 90.
Rahma
systolic phase is 180.not 190
Manish

Get the best Anatomy & Physiology course in your pocket!





Source:  OpenStax, Anatomy & Physiology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 04, 2016 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11496/1.8
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'Anatomy & Physiology' conversation and receive update notifications?

Ask