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By the end of this section, you will be able to:
  • Identify the divisions of the lower limb and describe the bones of each region
  • Describe the bones and bony landmarks that articulate at each joint of the lower limb

Like the upper limb, the lower limb is divided into three regions. The thigh    is that portion of the lower limb located between the hip joint and knee joint. The leg    is specifically the region between the knee joint and the ankle joint. Distal to the ankle is the foot    . The lower limb contains 30 bones. These are the femur, patella, tibia, fibula, tarsal bones, metatarsal bones, and phalanges (see [link] ). The femur    is the single bone of the thigh. The patella    is the kneecap and articulates with the distal femur. The tibia    is the larger, weight-bearing bone located on the medial side of the leg, and the fibula    is the thin bone of the lateral leg. The bones of the foot are divided into three groups. The posterior portion of the foot is formed by a group of seven bones, each of which is known as a tarsal bone    , whereas the mid-foot contains five elongated bones, each of which is a metatarsal bone    . The toes contain 14 small bones, each of which is a phalanx bone of the foot    .

Femur

The femur, or thigh bone, is the single bone of the thigh region ( [link] ). It is the longest and strongest bone of the body, and accounts for approximately one-quarter of a person’s total height. The rounded, proximal end is the head of the femur    , which articulates with the acetabulum of the hip bone to form the hip joint    . The fovea capitis    is a minor indentation on the medial side of the femoral head that serves as the site of attachment for the ligament of the head of the femur    . This ligament spans the femur and acetabulum, but is weak and provides little support for the hip joint. It does, however, carry an important artery that supplies the head of the femur.

Femur and patella

This diagram shows the bones of the femur and the patella. The left panel shows the anterior view, and the right panel shows the posterior view.
The femur is the single bone of the thigh region. It articulates superiorly with the hip bone at the hip joint, and inferiorly with the tibia at the knee joint. The patella only articulates with the distal end of the femur.

The narrowed region below the head is the neck of the femur    . This is a common area for fractures of the femur. The greater trochanter    is the large, upward, bony projection located above the base of the neck. Multiple muscles that act across the hip joint attach to the greater trochanter, which, because of its projection from the femur, gives additional leverage to these muscles. The greater trochanter can be felt just under the skin on the lateral side of your upper thigh. The lesser trochanter    is a small, bony prominence that lies on the medial aspect of the femur, just below the neck. A single, powerful muscle attaches to the lesser trochanter. Running between the greater and lesser trochanters on the anterior side of the femur is the roughened intertrochanteric line    . The trochanters are also connected on the posterior side of the femur by the larger intertrochanteric crest    .

The elongated shaft of the femur    has a slight anterior bowing or curvature. At its proximal end, the posterior shaft has the gluteal tuberosity    , a roughened area extending inferiorly from the greater trochanter. More inferiorly, the gluteal tuberosity becomes continuous with the linea aspera    (“rough line”). This is the roughened ridge that passes distally along the posterior side of the mid-femur. Multiple muscles of the hip and thigh regions make long, thin attachments to the femur along the linea aspera.

Questions & Answers

What is the skin
Astony Reply
What is physiology?
Njaleny Reply
it is the study of the structure of the human body and its reationship
Hannah
Physiology is the function of a living organism.
Tammy
It is the study of human body and how it works.
Excellent
It is d entrance to the uterus
Umunna Reply
It is a small sensitive part of female sex organ which is found above d entrance to the vagina
Umunna
A small hole in d skin which contains d root of a hair
Umunna
A thin membrane which covers d entrance to the vagina in young girls
Umunna
Is a gland that produces milk in women and other female mammals
Umunna
A repeated process in which a woman's uterus gets ready for pregnancy which ends in a period if she does not get pregnant
Umunna
hello
Tamba
hi sir
Mir
so in summary describe the level of structural complexity within the body
Freda Reply
how can we describe briefly the levels of organization
Frimpong
what is blood clotting
Yahya Reply
Tiny bits in your blood called platelets get "turned on" by triggers released when a blood vessel is damaged. They stick to the walls in the area and each other, changing shape to form a plug that fills in the broken part to stop blood from leaking out. When activated, platelets also release chemic
Nilesh
what is a cell membrane?
lameck Reply
the cell membrane also called the plasma membrane regulates the transport materials entering and existing the cell.
Frimpong
what's gonna happen if your body doesn't produce enough white blood cells?
Jovanna
how is speech controlled by the nervous system?
Joseph Reply
The broca's area
Udebuana
what does the HCG
Njaleny
chemical level cellular level tissue level organ level organ system level organism
Chidera Reply
Yes Yes because they can perform more than one activity in the body
Chidera
the functional and structural unit of the body
Chidera
A group of 2 or more tissue that come together to perform a specific function
Chidera
A group of organs that work together to perform a specific function or meet the physiological needs of the body
Chidera
It's the highest level of organization
Chidera
2 or more cells coming together to perform a specific function
Chidera
Skeletal muscles can be tetanized but not cardiac muscle.Discuss
Okeke Reply
what is regional anatomy?
Grace Reply
study of structures that contribute to specific body region
charles
what is human anatomy?
Sam
It's the study of the interrelationships of body structures in a specific region
TM
is the study of the structure of the body and the relationship between body systems
Frimpong
what is grey matter
OJO Reply
it is the major component of the central nervous system consisting of the neuronal cell bodies,neuropil,glial cells,capillaries and synapses
Frimpong
What is neuron cell
Dev Reply
neuron cell are the fundamental units of the brain and nervous system responsible for receiving sensory input from the external world, for sending motor commands to muscles and for transforming and relaying the electrical signals at every step in between
Serphine
What is the perfect defination of Life
Dev
What does a word muscles means ?
Abubakar
the perfect destination of life is to have life without flaws and defects.Alife where nothing can go wrong.
Frimpong
what is Anatomy
Hannah Reply
because she's not yet at term
Nansi Reply
what is physiology?
Grace Reply
what is physiology
David
Physiology is the study of the functions of the human body
Hannah
am a new one!!
sekela
what is Homeopathy
AHMED

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Source:  OpenStax, Anatomy & Physiology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 04, 2016 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11496/1.8
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