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Finally, it is crucial to discuss the library's rights if the license is not renewed. For example, if the license pertains to a collection of academic journals, will the library continue to have access to back issues of the journals, or will all access to those journals be cut off? If the latter -- and if the licensor refuses to budge on this issue -- the library might seriously consider continuing to acquire paper versions of the journals instead of (or, conceivably, in addition to) subscribing to the online version.


Fees for subscriptions to journals, online databases or other resources are typically paid on an annual or monthly basis. When works are being licensed to libraries or other large educational institutions, licensors typically take into account the size of the institution, the number of users, and the number of pages that are downloaded when determining the appropriate subscription fee.

Licensors of online journals and electronic databases vary widely in their flexibility regarding fee arrangements. Some licensors are willing to negotiate fees, others offer various packages, and others offer only one arrangement. A subscription fee could include unlimited use of the licensor’s materials, limited use for particular purpose, a pay-per-use arrangement, or a combination of these.

Pay-per-use arrangements might set a fee for each log-on access, each time a user searches for content, or might allow unlimited access but charge users or subscribing institutions for each download. Universities often purchase what is called a  site license , which gives all the members of the university community access to the material for a set fee.

Collective management

Purpose and functions of collective management organizations

The system of individual licenses described in the previous section is straightforward: the copyright holder authorizes the use of the work by a specific licensee under specified conditions. However, because copyright licensing often involves widely distributed works, individual licensing can become both very difficult and prohibitively expensive. It would not be practical, for example, for the holder of the copyright to a popular song to attempt to respond to thousands of licensing requests from radio stations all over the world.

As a result, copyright holders frequently allow  collective management organizations  (also known as collecting societies) to grant licenses, monitor uses of copyrighted material, and collect and share compensation from licensees on their behalf. This allows copyright holders to exercise their rights as efficiently as possible, as they can grant many more licenses than they would be able to under a direct licensing system. They also benefit from the bargaining power of an organization that negotiates payments on behalf of them and many other authors, and can bring infringement suits against persons or organizations that use copyrighted works without permission.

Licensees can also benefit from the use of collective management organizations because those organizations provide users with convenient access to large collections of materials. A radio station wanting to broadcast music from around the world on a daily basis would not be able to do so if it had to seek out and acquire rights from the copyright and neighboring rights holders of each song, but can easily enter into licenses with a small number of collective management organizations. However, licensees should bear in mind that most such organizations act as agents for copyright holders; their primary objective is to maximize the copyright holders' revenues. They should thus not be thought of as neutral arbiters.

Questions & Answers

what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Copyright for librarians. OpenStax CNX. Jun 15, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11329/1.2
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