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This module describes FFT, convolution, filtering, LTI systems, digital filters and circular convolution.

Important application of the fft

How many complex multiplies and adds are required to convolve two N -pt sequences? y n m 0 N 1 x m h n m

There are 2 N 1 non-zero output points and each will be computed using N complex mults and N 1 complex adds. Therefore, Total Cost 2 N 1 N N 1 O N 2

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  • Zero-pad these two sequences to length 2 N 1 , take DFTs using the FFT algorithm x n X k h n H k The cost is O 2 N 1 2 N 1 O N N
  • Multiply DFTs X k H k The cost is O 2 N 1 O N
  • Inverse DFT using FFT X k H k y n The cost is O 2 N 1 2 N 1 O N N

So the total cost for direct convolution of two N -point sequences is O N 2 . Total cost for convolution using FFT algorithm is O N N . That is a huge savings ( ).

Summary of dft

  • x n is an N -point signal ( ).
  • X k n 0 N 1 x n 2 N k n n 0 N 1 x n W N k n where W N 2 N is a "twiddle factor" and the first part is the basic DFT.

What is the dft

X k X F k N n 0 N 1 x n 2 F n where X F k N is the DTFT of x n and n 0 N 1 x n 2 F n is the DTFT of x n at digital frequency F . This is a sample of the DTFT. We can do frequency domain analysis on a computer!

Inverse dft (idft)

x n 1 N n 0 N 1 X k 2 N k n

  • Build x n using Simple complex sinusoidal building block signals
  • Amplitude of each complex sinusoidal building block in x n is 1 N X k

Circular convolution


x n h n X k H k

Regular convolution from circular convolution

  • Zero pad x n and h n to length length x length h 1
  • Zero padding increases frequency resolution in DFT domain ( )

8-pt DFT of 8-pt signal
16-pt DFT of same signal padded with 8 additional zeros

The fast fourier transform (fft)

  • Efficient computational algorithm for calculating the DFT
  • "Divide and conquer"
  • Break signal into even and odd samples keep taking shorter and shorter DFTs, then build N -pt DFT by cleverly combining shorter DFTs
  • N -pt DFT: O N 2 O N 2 logbase --> N

Fast convolution

  • Use FFT's to compute circular convolution of zero-padded signals
  • Much faster than regular convolution if signal lengths are long
  • O N 2 O N 2 logbase --> N

See .

Questions & Answers

How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
How can I make nanorobot?
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
how can I make nanorobot?
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Intro to digital signal processing. OpenStax CNX. Jan 22, 2004 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10203/1.4
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