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Cumberland Gap is a 1,665 feet elevation pass through the Appalachian Mountains lying at the border of Kentucky, Tennessee and Virginia, long known to the Indians, but discovered for the Virginia Land Company by Dr. Thomas Walker in 1750 and named for the Duke of Cumberland. From the pass trails fan out to the south and west so that somewhat later a veteran of the French and Indian Wars, Daniel Boone, made this a highway to the promised land of the west. The so-called "Wilderness Road" was nearly 300 miles long, ending at the Ohio River at Louisville and within 15 years, at the end of the century, 100,000 people had traversed this trail to western Tennessee and Kentucky. Mostly unlettered, these people needed a good gun, a good horse and a good wife, along with good health, good luck, an axe and salt. Most had to carry their salt over the mountains, but at Boone County, Kentucky was a huge brine lake, which incidentally was also a great archaeological find, with a graveyard of mastodon bones. The salt licks were also used by the Indians and this immediately helped to initiate hard feelings early in the settlement of the area.

During the six years of the French-Indian War, the British got an education and became aware of the fact that they needed to overhaul their imperial system and strengthen their central authority. Previously all relation of England to the colonies was on the basis of a commercial empire, on the theory that the colonies existed solely for the benefit of the homeland and that in return the homeland owed them protection. Although the Acts of Trade and Navigation had been passed by Parliament in 1651 they had not been enforced until this century. These Acts called for exclusive navigation, in that all commerce had to involve only British or colonial ships and the "Entrepot Principle" which meant that foreign trade should normally be conducted through the mother country. After the war just discussed, England began to pass constricting laws, new taxes and new army conscriptions from the colonies themselves. This shocked the Americans. First came the Stamp Act, innocuous enough in itself, but inf uriating to the colonists and soon repealed at the insistence of William Pitt. But then came George 111 and Lord North, with still more repressive laws and taxes and a show-down became inevitable. (Ref. 39 ) (Go to 1140&1153)

Factors leading to the american revolution

  • Enforcement of the Sugar Act
    Sometimes called the "Molasses Act"
    of 1733 by William Pitt in 1760. Early Americans, like most Europeans of the day, preferred to drink almost anything in preference to water and the New Englanders made everything from poor whiskey to pumpkin beer, maple syrup and persimmons to apple-jack. But soon the main drink in the colonies was rum and the yearly consumption was 3 3/4 gallons per person, including women and children. Some believe that the Sugar Act which imposed a heavy tax on both sugar and molasses (if they came from anyplace but the British owned Caribbean Islands) was more important in the declaration of independence than the tea tax, because the rum trade was based on molasses. The rum was felt to be important, not only for the local consumption but because the New England shippers could exchange rum for slaves in Africa, then trade the slaves in the West Indies for more molasses, which was taken back to the colonies to make more rum. Alcohol was a mainstay of 18th century America. When George Washington was campaigning for the Virginia legislature in 1758, his agents doled out almost 3 3/4 gallons of beer, wine, cider or rum to every voter and Washington was afraid this would not be enough. (Ref. 217 )
  • The Iron Act of 1750 prohibiting colonists from manufacturing iron products, but allowing them to develop their ore deposits for exchange in England for the manufactured pieces. This was the classic mercantilism of the British colonial system, using colonies to produce raw materials, which the mother country could process and sell back. This law was generally ignored by the Americans
  • The Garrisoning of 10,000 British troops, and this chiefly in cities, rather than on frontiers where they were needed
  • The Revenue Act of 1764, to raise money to defray the expense of troops "defending the colonies". This act put duties on foreign sugar, European luxuries and limited some exports
  • The Stamp Act of 1775. This was the first direct, internal tax levied on the colonies. Every type of legal document, even such as college diplomas, was heavily taxed and payable in sterling. Every copy of newspapers, each advertisement in papers, etc. was taxed. Riots against enforcement officials began immediately. A middle-class organization, "Sons of Liberty", sprung up in every seaport and kept the courts from acting, thus nullifying the law. It was repealed by a new administration in England in 1766
  • The Townshend Act of 1767. Avoiding an internal tax, which the colonists thought unconstitutional, this levied duties on certain English manufactures entering America - paper, glass, paint and the East India Company's tea. The culminating blow was a whole new customs regulation organization to enforce this, using Admiralty Courts to try cases under the Acts of Trade and Navigation, without a jury. The Townshend duties were repealed in 1770, except for tea. It was at that time that Samuel Adams, a middle class Bostonian, began to lead opposition as a Boston "radical"
  • Land Grievances. There were brawls in the back-country from New Hampshire to South Carolina over land boundaries, land companies and the like, with resulting grievances of frontiersmen against the establishment on the coast. All felt their problems had no attention in Parliament. The Boston Tea Party of 1773. The Sons of Liberty, dressed as Indians, boarded three, unloaded tea ships in Boston Harbor and dumped the cargo into the sea. This was a protest against the tax on tea and it had the calculated effect of irritating the British government into unwise acts of reprisal. This is what Sam Adams wanted
  • The Coercive Acts of 1774. The Boston Port Act virtually blockaded Boston until it paid for the dumped tea. The Administration of Justice Acts chastised Massachusetts, making councilmen, judges, sheriff s, etc. all appointees of the king. The Quartering Act empowered royal governors to commandeer houses for soldiers. It should be noted that many old Whigs and merchants in England opposed all of these Acts

Questions & Answers

What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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