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External control

Angus (1996) argues, “schools have generally promoted the interests of capital and dominant social groups (p. 973). External control of schools by the powerful and wealthy traditionally has worked against equity and social justice (Spring, 1990). The control of schools in the United States by outside groups can be traced all of the way back to colonial times. The first source of control was religion, with the local school controlled by the community’s dominant church (Spring, 1990). Curti (1971) argued that significant religious control of public schools continued into the middle of the 19 th century.

With the coming of the second industrial revolution in the mid-19 th century, business and industry began to exert significant control over public schools. Industry’s aim in controlling education was to assure that future workers developed skills for the workplace. Schools began to emulate business and factories in organization, administration, and teaching (Spring, 1990). In the early 20 th century the field of educational leadership adopted Taylor’s scientific method. “The principals of hierarchical management, scientific study and control of the elements of the organization, selecting and training of individuals for places within the organization and cost efficiency became the focus for the professionalization of public school administration” (Spring, 1990, p. 234). Even in the late 20 th century Angus (1996) considered business to be “the dominant metaphor in educational administration” (p. 977), lamenting, “the language of management is external (not natural) to administrators” (p. 969).

The social sciences, first represented by sociologists and psychologists from outside of education and eventually by educational sociologists, psychologists, and anthropologists, had significant influence over education and educational leadership in the 20 th century. The social control movement of the early 20 th century, led by sociologists like Edward Ross (1912) and Ross Finney (1929), preceded mid-century psychological theories like William James’ (1950) stimulus-response learning and B.F. Skinner’s (1976) operant conditioning. While adapting theories from the social sciences to the leadership preparation curriculum, the administration professoriate also adopted social science methods for its own research and theory building. Social science’s greatest influence in educational leadership came during what McCarthy and Kuh (1990) called “the theory movement,” which was “grounded in the belief that educational administration is an applied social science, that research should be theory-based, and that administrative phenomena can be investigated” (p.9).

Currently, government is the entity that exhibits the greatest control over education and educational leadership in the United States. Government by definition always has some control over public education, but traditionally governance has in large part been delegated to local boards of education. The modern era of state control began in the 1960s as states received increased federal funding for education, much of it to be dispersed through state agencies to school districts, with other funding provided to build the administrative capacity of the state agencies (Spring, 1990). Another major increase in state power came in the 1980s after the publication of A Nation of Risk . The age of “legislated learning” had begun (Wise 1979, 1988), with the Texas accountability system leading the way (Heilig&Darling-Hammond, 2008). In the early 21 st century, federal control of education rivals state control, with NCLB mandating what is basically the Texas accountability system on a national level, and initiatives of the Obama administration extending federal control even further (Camins, 2011; Ramirez, 2010; Starnes, 2012).

Questions & Answers

How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
How can I make nanorobot?
Lily
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
how can I make nanorobot?
Lily
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Beyond convention, beyond critique: toward a third way of preparing educational leaders to promote equity and social justice. OpenStax CNX. Jul 08, 2012 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11434/1.2
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