# 5.3 Graphs of polynomial functions  (Page 9/13)

 Page 9 / 13

$f\left(x\right)={x}^{5}-2x,\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ between $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}x=1\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ and $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}x=2.$

$f\left(x\right)=-{x}^{4}+4,\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ between $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}x=1\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ and $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}x=3$ .

$f\left(1\right)=3\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ and $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}f\left(3\right)=–77.\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ Sign change confirms.

$f\left(x\right)=-2{x}^{3}-x,\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ between $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}x=–1\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ and $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}x=1.$

$f\left(x\right)={x}^{3}-100x+2,\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ between $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}x=0.01\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ and $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}x=0.1$

$f\left(0.01\right)=1.000001\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ and $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}f\left(0.1\right)=–7.999.\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ Sign change confirms.

For the following exercises, find the zeros and give the multiplicity of each.

$f\left(x\right)={\left(x+2\right)}^{3}{\left(x-3\right)}^{2}$

$f\left(x\right)={x}^{2}{\left(2x+3\right)}^{5}{\left(x-4\right)}^{2}$

0 with multiplicity 2, $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}-\frac{3}{2}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ with multiplicity 5, 4 with multiplicity 2

$f\left(x\right)={x}^{3}{\left(x-1\right)}^{3}\left(x+2\right)$

$f\left(x\right)={x}^{2}\left({x}^{2}+4x+4\right)$

0 with multiplicity 2, –2 with multiplicity 2

$f\left(x\right)={\left(2x+1\right)}^{3}\left(9{x}^{2}-6x+1\right)$

$f\left(x\right)={\left(3x+2\right)}^{5}\left({x}^{2}-10x+25\right)$

$-\frac{2}{3}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{with}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{multiplicity}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}5\text{,}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}5\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{with}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{multiplicity}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{2}$

$f\left(x\right)=x\left(4{x}^{2}-12x+9\right)\left({x}^{2}+8x+16\right)$

$f\left(x\right)={x}^{6}-{x}^{5}-2{x}^{4}$

$\text{0}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{with}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{multiplicity}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}4\text{,}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}2\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{with}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{multiplicity}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}1\text{,}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}–\text{1}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{with}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{multiplicity}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}1$

$f\left(x\right)=3{x}^{4}+6{x}^{3}+3{x}^{2}$

$f\left(x\right)=4{x}^{5}-12{x}^{4}+9{x}^{3}$

$\frac{3}{2}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ with multiplicity 2, 0 with multiplicity 3

$f\left(x\right)=2{x}^{4}\left({x}^{3}-4{x}^{2}+4x\right)$

$f\left(x\right)=4{x}^{4}\left(9{x}^{4}-12{x}^{3}+4{x}^{2}\right)$

$\text{0}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{with}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{multiplicity}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}6\text{,}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\frac{2}{3}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{with}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{multiplicity}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}2$

## Graphical

For the following exercises, graph the polynomial functions. Note $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}x\text{-}$ and $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}y\text{-}$ intercepts, multiplicity, and end behavior.

$f\left(x\right)={\left(x+3\right)}^{2}\left(x-2\right)$

$g\left(x\right)=\left(x+4\right){\left(x-1\right)}^{2}$

x -intercepts, $\left(1, 0\right)$ with multiplicity 2, with multiplicity 1, $y\text{-}$ intercept As $\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}x\to -\infty ,\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}f\left(x\right)\to -\infty ,\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{as}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}x\to \infty ,\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}f\left(x\right)\to \infty .$

$h\left(x\right)={\left(x-1\right)}^{3}{\left(x+3\right)}^{2}$

$k\left(x\right)={\left(x-3\right)}^{3}{\left(x-2\right)}^{2}$

x -intercepts $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\left(3,0\right)\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ with multiplicity 3, $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\left(2,0\right)\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ with multiplicity 2, $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}y\text{-}$ intercept $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\left(0,–108\right).\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ As $x\to -\infty ,\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}f\left(x\right)\to -\infty ,\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{as}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}x\to \infty ,\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}f\left(x\right)\to \infty .$

$m\left(x\right)=-2x\left(x-1\right)\left(x+3\right)$

$n\left(x\right)=-3x\left(x+2\right)\left(x-4\right)$

x -intercepts with multiplicity 1, $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}y\text{-}$ intercept As $x\to -\infty ,\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}f\left(x\right)\to \infty ,\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{as}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}x\to \infty ,\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}f\left(x\right)\to -\infty .$

For the following exercises, use the graphs to write the formula for a polynomial function of least degree.

$f\left(x\right)=-\frac{2}{9}\left(x-3\right)\left(x+1\right)\left(x+3\right)$

$f\left(x\right)=\frac{1}{4}{\left(x+2\right)}^{2}\left(x-3\right)$

For the following exercises, use the graph to identify zeros and multiplicity.

–4, –2, 1, 3 with multiplicity 1

–2, 3 each with multiplicity 2

For the following exercises, use the given information about the polynomial graph to write the equation.

Degree 3. Zeros at $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}x=–2,$ $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}x=1,\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ and $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}x=3.\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ y -intercept at $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\left(0,–4\right).$

$f\left(x\right)=-\frac{2}{3}\left(x+2\right)\left(x-1\right)\left(x-3\right)$

Degree 3. Zeros at $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}x=\text{–5,}$ $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}x=–2,$ and $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}x=1.\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ y -intercept at $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\left(0,6\right)$

Degree 5. Roots of multiplicity 2 at $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}x=3\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ and $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}x=1\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ , and a root of multiplicity 1 at $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}x=–3.\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ y -intercept at $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\left(0,9\right)$

$f\left(x\right)=\frac{1}{3}{\left(x-3\right)}^{2}{\left(x-1\right)}^{2}\left(x+3\right)$

Degree 4. Root of multiplicity 2 at $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}x=4,\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ and a roots of multiplicity 1 at $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}x=1\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ and $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}x=–2.\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ y -intercept at $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\left(0,\text{–}3\right).$

Degree 5. Double zero at $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}x=1,\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ and triple zero at $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}x=3.\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ Passes through the point $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\left(2,15\right).$

$f\left(x\right)=-15{\left(x-1\right)}^{2}{\left(x-3\right)}^{3}$

Degree 3. Zeros at $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}x=4,$ $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}x=3,$ and $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}x=2.\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ y -intercept at $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\left(0,-24\right).$

Degree 3. Zeros at $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}x=-3,$ $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}x=-2\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ and $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}x=1.\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ y -intercept at $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\left(0,12\right).$

$f\left(x\right)=-2\left(x+3\right)\left(x+2\right)\left(x-1\right)$

Degree 5. Roots of multiplicity 2 at $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}x=-3\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ and $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}x=2\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ and a root of multiplicity 1 at $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}x=-2.$

y -intercept at

Degree 4. Roots of multiplicity 2 at $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}x=\frac{1}{2}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ and roots of multiplicity 1 at $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}x=6\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ and $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}x=-2.$

y -intercept at $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\left(0,18\right).$

$f\left(x\right)=-\frac{3}{2}{\left(2x-1\right)}^{2}\left(x-6\right)\left(x+2\right)$

Double zero at $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}x=-3\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ and triple zero at $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}x=0.\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ Passes through the point $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\left(1,32\right).$

## Technology

For the following exercises, use a calculator to approximate local minima and maxima or the global minimum and maximum.

$f\left(x\right)={x}^{3}-x-1$

local max local min

$f\left(x\right)=2{x}^{3}-3x-1$

$f\left(x\right)={x}^{4}+x$

global min

$f\left(x\right)=-{x}^{4}+3x-2$

$f\left(x\right)={x}^{4}-{x}^{3}+1$

global min

## Extensions

For the following exercises, use the graphs to write a polynomial function of least degree.

$f\left(x\right)={\left(x-500\right)}^{2}\left(x+200\right)$

## Real-world applications

For the following exercises, write the polynomial function that models the given situation.

A rectangle has a length of 10 units and a width of 8 units. Squares of $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}x\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ by $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}x\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ units are cut out of each corner, and then the sides are folded up to create an open box. Express the volume of the box as a polynomial function in terms of $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}x.$

$f\left(x\right)=4{x}^{3}-36{x}^{2}+80x$

Consider the same rectangle of the preceding problem. Squares of $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}2x\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ by $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}2x\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ units are cut out of each corner. Express the volume of the box as a polynomial in terms of $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}x.$

A square has sides of 12 units. Squares by units are cut out of each corner, and then the sides are folded up to create an open box. Express the volume of the box as a function in terms of $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}x.$

$f\left(x\right)=4{x}^{3}-36{x}^{2}+60x+100$

A cylinder has a radius of $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}x+2\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ units and a height of 3 units greater. Express the volume of the cylinder as a polynomial function.

A right circular cone has a radius of $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}3x+6\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ and a height 3 units less. Express the volume of the cone as a polynomial function. The volume of a cone is $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}V=\frac{1}{3}\pi {r}^{2}h\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ for radius $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}r\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ and height $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}h.$

$f\left(x\right)=\pi \left(9{x}^{3}+45{x}^{2}+72x+36\right)$

what is math number
x-2y+3z=-3 2x-y+z=7 -x+3y-z=6
Need help solving this problem (2/7)^-2
x+2y-z=7
Sidiki
what is the coefficient of -4×
-1
Shedrak
the operation * is x * y =x + y/ 1+(x × y) show if the operation is commutative if x × y is not equal to -1
An investment account was opened with an initial deposit of \$9,600 and earns 7.4% interest, compounded continuously. How much will the account be worth after 15 years?
lim x to infinity e^1-e^-1/log(1+x)
given eccentricity and a point find the equiation
12, 17, 22.... 25th term
12, 17, 22.... 25th term
Akash
College algebra is really hard?
Absolutely, for me. My problems with math started in First grade...involving a nun Sister Anastasia, bad vision, talking & getting expelled from Catholic school. When it comes to math I just can't focus and all I can hear is our family silverware banging and clanging on the pink Formica table.
Carole
I'm 13 and I understand it great
AJ
I am 1 year old but I can do it! 1+1=2 proof very hard for me though.
Atone
hi
Not really they are just easy concepts which can be understood if you have great basics. I am 14 I understood them easily.
Vedant
hi vedant can u help me with some assignments
Solomon
find the 15th term of the geometric sequince whose first is 18 and last term of 387
I know this work
salma
The given of f(x=x-2. then what is the value of this f(3) 5f(x+1)
hmm well what is the answer
Abhi
If f(x) = x-2 then, f(3) when 5f(x+1) 5((3-2)+1) 5(1+1) 5(2) 10
Augustine
how do they get the third part x = (32)5/4
make 5/4 into a mixed number, make that a decimal, and then multiply 32 by the decimal 5/4 turns out to be
AJ
how
Sheref
can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
20/(×-6^2)
Salomon
okay, so you have 6 raised to the power of 2. what is that part of your answer
I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
Salomon
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
Salomon
I got X =-6
Salomon
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
oops. ignore that.
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
hmm
Abhi
is it a question of log
Abhi
🤔.
Abhi
I rally confuse this number And equations too I need exactly help
salma
But this is not salma it's Faiza live in lousvile Ky I garbage this so I am going collage with JCTC that the of the collage thank you my friends
salma
Commplementary angles
hello
Sherica
im all ears I need to learn
Sherica
right! what he said ⤴⤴⤴
Tamia
hii
Uday
hi
salma
hi
Ayuba
Hello
opoku
hi
Ali
greetings from Iran
Ali
salut. from Algeria
Bach
hi
Nharnhar