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Helium ions not scattered at the surface lose energy as they traverse the solid. They lose energy due to interaction with electrons in the target. After collision the He particles lose further energy on their way out to the detector. We need to know two quantities to measure the energy loss, the distance Δt that the particles penetrate into the target and the energy loss ΔE in this distance [link] . The rate of energy loss or stopping power is a critical component in backscattering experiments as it determines the depth profile in a given experiment.

alternate text
Components of energy loss for a ion beam that scatters from depth t. First, incident beam loses energy through interaction with electrons ΔE in . Then energy lost occurs due to scattering E c . Finally outgoing beam loses energy for interaction with electrons ΔE out . Adapted from L. C. Feldman and J. W. Mayer, Fundamentals of Surface and Thin Film Analysis , North Holland-Elsevier, New York (1986).

In thin film analysis, it is convenient to assume that total energy loss ΔE into depth t is only proportional to t for a given target. This assumption allows a simple derivation of energy loss in backscattering as more complete analysis requires many numerical techniques. In constant dE / dx approximation, total energy loss becomes linearly related to depth t, [link] .

alternate text
Variation of energy loss with the depth of the target in constant dE/dx approximation.

Experimental set-up

The apparatus for Rutherford backscattering analysis of thin solid surface typically consist of three components:

  1. A source of helium ions.
  2. An accelerator to energize the helium ions.
  3. A detector to measure the energy of scattered ions.

There are two types of accelerator/ion source available. In single stage accelerator, the He + source is placed within an insulating gas-filled tank ( [link] ). It is difficult to install new ion source when it is exhausted in this type of accelerator. Moreover, it is also difficult to achieve particles with energy much more than 1 MeV since it is difficult to apply high voltages in this type of system.

Schematic representation of a single stage accelerator.

Another variation is “tandem accelerator.” Here the ion source is at ground and produces negative ion. The positive terminal is located is at the center of the acceleration tube ( [link] ). Initially the negative ion is accelerated from ground to terminal. At terminal two-electron stripping process converts the He - to He ++ . The positive ions are further accelerated toward ground due to columbic repulsion from positive terminal. This arrangement can achieve highly accelerated He ++ ions (~ 2.25 MeV) with moderate voltage of 750 kV.

Schematic representation of a tandem accelerator.

Particles that are backscattered by surface atoms of the bombarded specimen are detected by a surface barrier detector. The surface barrier detector is a thin layer of p-type silicon on the n-type substrate resulting p-n junction. When the scattered ions exchange energy with the electrons on the surface of the detector upon reaching the detector, electrons get promoted from the valence band to the conduction band. Thus, each exchange of energy creates electron-hole pairs. The energy of scattered ions is detected by simply counting the number of electron-hole pairs. The energy resolution of the surface barrier detector in a standard RBS experiment is 12 - 20 keV. The surface barrier detector is generally set between 90° and 170° to the incident beam. Films are usually set normal to the incident beam. A simple layout is shown in [link] .

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
advantages of NAA
Sai Reply
how I can reaction of mercury?
Sham Reply

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