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Helium ions not scattered at the surface lose energy as they traverse the solid. They lose energy due to interaction with electrons in the target. After collision the He particles lose further energy on their way out to the detector. We need to know two quantities to measure the energy loss, the distance Δt that the particles penetrate into the target and the energy loss ΔE in this distance [link] . The rate of energy loss or stopping power is a critical component in backscattering experiments as it determines the depth profile in a given experiment.

alternate text
Components of energy loss for a ion beam that scatters from depth t. First, incident beam loses energy through interaction with electrons ΔE in . Then energy lost occurs due to scattering E c . Finally outgoing beam loses energy for interaction with electrons ΔE out . Adapted from L. C. Feldman and J. W. Mayer, Fundamentals of Surface and Thin Film Analysis , North Holland-Elsevier, New York (1986).

In thin film analysis, it is convenient to assume that total energy loss ΔE into depth t is only proportional to t for a given target. This assumption allows a simple derivation of energy loss in backscattering as more complete analysis requires many numerical techniques. In constant dE / dx approximation, total energy loss becomes linearly related to depth t, [link] .

alternate text
Variation of energy loss with the depth of the target in constant dE/dx approximation.

Experimental set-up

The apparatus for Rutherford backscattering analysis of thin solid surface typically consist of three components:

  1. A source of helium ions.
  2. An accelerator to energize the helium ions.
  3. A detector to measure the energy of scattered ions.

There are two types of accelerator/ion source available. In single stage accelerator, the He + source is placed within an insulating gas-filled tank ( [link] ). It is difficult to install new ion source when it is exhausted in this type of accelerator. Moreover, it is also difficult to achieve particles with energy much more than 1 MeV since it is difficult to apply high voltages in this type of system.

Schematic representation of a single stage accelerator.

Another variation is “tandem accelerator.” Here the ion source is at ground and produces negative ion. The positive terminal is located is at the center of the acceleration tube ( [link] ). Initially the negative ion is accelerated from ground to terminal. At terminal two-electron stripping process converts the He - to He ++ . The positive ions are further accelerated toward ground due to columbic repulsion from positive terminal. This arrangement can achieve highly accelerated He ++ ions (~ 2.25 MeV) with moderate voltage of 750 kV.

Schematic representation of a tandem accelerator.

Particles that are backscattered by surface atoms of the bombarded specimen are detected by a surface barrier detector. The surface barrier detector is a thin layer of p-type silicon on the n-type substrate resulting p-n junction. When the scattered ions exchange energy with the electrons on the surface of the detector upon reaching the detector, electrons get promoted from the valence band to the conduction band. Thus, each exchange of energy creates electron-hole pairs. The energy of scattered ions is detected by simply counting the number of electron-hole pairs. The energy resolution of the surface barrier detector in a standard RBS experiment is 12 - 20 keV. The surface barrier detector is generally set between 90° and 170° to the incident beam. Films are usually set normal to the incident beam. A simple layout is shown in [link] .

Questions & Answers

Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
hi
Loga
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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advantages of NAA
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how I can reaction of mercury?
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Source:  OpenStax, Physical methods in chemistry and nano science. OpenStax CNX. May 05, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col10699/1.21
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