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[ CrCl 2 ( H 2 O ) 4 ] Cl ( H 2 O ) 2 [ CrCl 2 ( H 2 O ) 4 ] + + Cl + water size 12{ \[ ital "CrCl" rSub { size 8{2} } \( H rSub { size 8{2} } O \) rSub { size 8{4} } \] ital "Cl" cdot \( H rSub { size 8{2} } O \) rSub { size 8{2} } rightarrow \[ ital "CrCl" rSub { size 8{2} } \( H rSub { size 8{2} } O \) rSub { size 8{4} } \]rSup { size 8{+{}} } + ital "Cl" rSup { size 8{ - {}} } + ital "water"} {}

The light green compound with two reactive chlorines is apparently [ CrCl ( H 2 O ) 5 ] Cl 2 H 2 O size 12{ \[ ital "CrCl" \( H rSub { size 8{2} } O \) rSub { size 8{5} } \] ital "Cl" rSub { size 8{2} } cdot H rSub { size 8{2} } O} {} , while the violet compound with three reactive chlorines is Cr ( H 2 O ) 6 Cl 3 size 12{ ital "Cr" \( H rSub { size 8{2} } O \) rSub { size 8{6} } ital "Cl" rSub { size 8{3} } } {} .

Closely related to hydrate isomerism is ionization isomerism, where an ion takes the place of water. Consider two different compounds with the formula Co ( NH 3 ) 5 SO 4 Br size 12{ ital "Co" \( ital "NH" rSub { size 8{3} } \) rSub { size 8{5} } ital "SO" rSub { size 8{4} } ital "Br"} {} . One of these, [ Co ( NH 3 ) 5 ( SO 4 ) ] Br size 12{ \[ ital "Co" \( ital "NH" rSub { size 8{3} } \) rSub { size 8{5} } \( ital "SO" rSub { size 8{4} } \) \] ital "Br"} {} , appears red, whereas the other, [ Co ( NH 3 ) 5 Br ] SO 4 size 12{ \[ ital "Co" \( ital "NH" rSub { size 8{3} } \) rSub { size 8{5} } ital "Br" \] ital "SO" rSub { size 8{4} } } {} , appears violet.

In addition to these coordination sphere isomers there are geometrical isomers, which have coordination spheres of the same composition but different geometrical arrangement. Geometrical isomers are distinct compounds and can have different physical properties (although often not too different) such as color, crystal structure, melting point, and so on. For example, dichlorodiamine platinum (II) occurs in the square planar geometry (B) so the chlorine ligands can be either next to one another (cis) or opposite from one another (trans). The compound you will synthesize has an octahedral geometry with two (bidentate) "en" ligands, and two nitro ( NO 2 ) size 12{ \( ital "NO" rSub { size 8{2} } \) } {} ligands. The geometrical isomer you will make is the trans form, in which the NO 2 size 12{ ital "NO" rSub { size 8{2} } } {} ligands are not adjacent to one another. This difference between cis and trans octahedral isomers is shown in Fig 2.

Fig 2. The trans and cis geometrical isomers for octahedral complexes with two bidentate (“en”) and monodentate ( NO 2 ) size 12{ \( ital "NO" rSub { size 8{2} } \) } {} ligands specifically dinitrobis(ethylenediamine)Co(III). The two black balls represent the NO 2 size 12{ ital "NO" rSub { size 8{2} } } {} ligands and the two pairs of linked white balls represent the two ethylenediamine ligands. Cis and trans describe the relationship (relative position) between the two NO 2 size 12{ ital "NO" rSub { size 8{2} } } {} ligands. 

In the procedure that follows we start with a cobalt solution made from the salt hexaquacobalt(II) nitrate, [ Co ( H 2 O ) 6 ] ( NO 3 ) 2 size 12{ \[ ital "Co" \( H rSub { size 8{2} } O \) rSub { size 8{6} } \] \( ital "NO" rSub { size 8{3} } \) rSub { size 8{2} } } {} . When this salt dissolves it ionizes to form two ions of NO 3 size 12{ ital "NO" rSub { size 8{3} } rSup { size 8{ - {}} } } {} and one of Co ( H 2 O ) 6 2 + size 12{ ital "Co" \( H rSub { size 8{2} } O \) rSub { size 8{6} } rSup { size 8{2+{}} } } {} . We wish to prepare a Co(III) compound of ethylenediamine, so we must add ethylenediamine (en) and oxidize the Co(II) to Co(III). Because Co(II) is more reactive than Co(III), we allow it to react with (en) first, and then oxidize the resulting complex ion. In aqueous solution (en) reacts with water to produce OH size 12{ ital "OH" rSup { size 8{ - {}} } } {} ions which can also bind to Co(II), so the pH is adjusted close to 7 first by adding HNO 3 size 12{ ital "HNO" rSub { size 8{3} } } {} . (Other acids would introduce new ligands to compete for the Co.) NaNO 2 size 12{ ital "NaNO" rSub { size 8{2} } } {} is added to provide the ligands that will be trans in the final compound. Lastly, Co(II) is oxidized to Co(III) by bubbling oxygen through the solution.

Experimental procedure

  • Use your 10 mL graduated cylinder to measure out 20 mL of the 20% by weight solution of ethylenediamine in dilute HNO 3 size 12{ ital "HNO" rSub { size 8{3} } } {} .
  • Pour it into a clean 125 mL Erlenmeyer flask. Rinse the graduated cylinder with about 5mL of deionised water (DI water from white handle faucet) and add the rinse water to the flask. Set this aside for a moment and prepare the second set of reactants as described below.
  • Weigh out 9.0 g of hexaquacobalt(II) nitrate and 6.0 g sodium nitrite ( NaNO 2 size 12{ ital "NaNO" rSub { size 8{2} } } {} ) using a rough balance (Record mass on report form). Add these reactants to approximately 15 mL of DI water in an Erlenmeyer flask. After they have dissolved, add the neutralized ethylenediamine solution prepared in steps 1-2. Record your observations.
  • For the next set of instructions, refer to the diagram below. Fit a piece of rubber tubing over an inert gas "IG" tap (on benchtop) and open the valve slowly to obtain a gentle flow of oxygen. Then insert a Pasteur pipet into the other end of the rubber tubing. CAUTION: Too high a gas flow might blow the pipet out of the tubing and cause serious injury. Always adjust the valve carefully while pointing your pipet in a safe direction. Test the flow by immersing the pipet tip in a beaker of water--it should bubble vigorously, but not enough to cause much splashing. When the flow is set to your satisfaction, immerse the tip of the pipet in the Erlenmeyer flask containing the reaction mixture. Secure the flask to a stand with a clamp because the reaction mixture may need about 10 minutes of moderately vigorous bubbling to reach completion. Record your observations.

Questions & Answers

what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Honors chemistry lab fall. OpenStax CNX. Nov 15, 2007 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10456/1.16
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