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In the second part of this experiment, you will study the effect of temperature on solubility. The effect that temperature has on solubility varies from salt to salt. We conclude that mixing solutions of KCl and NaNO 3 size 12{"NaNO" rSub { size 8{3} } } {} resulted in no reaction (see Equations 6 and 7). What would happen if we cooled such a mixture? The solution would eventually become saturated with respect to one of the salts, and crystals of that salt would begin to appear as its solubility was exceeded. Examination of Equation 6 reveals that crystals of any of the following salts could appear initially: KNO 3 size 12{"KNO" rSub { size 8{3} } } {} , KCl, NaNO 3 size 12{"NaNO" rSub { size 8{3} } } {} , or NaCl.Consequently, if a solution containing Na + size 12{"Na" rSup { size 8{+{}} } } {} , K + size 12{K rSup { size 8{+{}} } } {} , Cl size 12{"Cl" rSup { size 8{ - {}} } } {} , and NO 3 size 12{"NO" rSub { size 8{3} rSup { size 8{ - {}} } } } {} ions is evaporated at a given temperature, the solution becomes more and more concentrated and will eventually become saturated with respect to one of the four compounds. If a evaporation is continued, that compound will crystallize out, removing its' ions from solution. The other ions will remain in solution and increase in concentration. Before beginning this laboratory exercise you are to plot a graph of the solubilities of the four salts given in Table 3 on your report sheet.

Experimental procedure

Part 1: metathesis reactions


  • The report sheet lists 16 pairs of chemicals that are to be mixed. Use about 1 mL of the reagents to be combined as indicated on the report sheet.
  • Mix the solutions in small test tubes and record your observations on the report sheet. If there is no reaction, write N.R. (The reactions need not be carried out in the order listed. In order to reduce congestion at the reagent shelf, half the class will start in reverse order). Dispose of the contents of your test tubes in the designated receptacles.

Part 2: solubility, temperature and crystallization

  • Place 8.5 g of sodium nitrate and 7.5 g of potassium chloride in a 100-mL beaker and add 25 mL of water. Warm the mixture on an hotplate, stirring, until the solids completely dissolve.
  • Assuming a volume of 25mL for the solution, calculate the molarity of the solution with respect to NaNO 3 size 12{"NaNO" rSub { size 8{3} } } {} , KCl, NaCl, and KNO 3 size 12{"KNO" rSub { size 8{3} } } {} , and record these molarities on your report form.
  • Cool the solution to about 10°C by placing the beaker in ice water in a 600-mL beaker and stir the solution carefully with a thermometer, being careful not to break it.
  • When no more crystals form, at approximately 10°C, filter the cold solution quickly and allow the filtrate to drain thoroughly into an evaporating dish. Dry the crystals between two dry pieces of filter paper or paper towels.
  • Examine the crystals with a magnifying glass (or fill a Florence flask with water and look at the crystals through it). Describe the shape of the crystals—that is, needles, cubes, plates, rhombs, and so forth on your report form.
  • Based upon your solubility graph, which compound crystallized out of solution and write that in the appropriate place on your report form
  • Evaporate the filtrate to about half of its volume using a Bunsen burner and ring stand. A second crop of crystals should form. Record the temperature and rapidly filter the hot solution, collecting the filtrate in a clean 100-mL beaker.
  • Dry the second batch of crystals between two pieces of filter paper and examine their shape. Compare their shape with the first batch of crystals.
  • Based upon your solubility graph, what is this substance?
  • Finally, cool the filtrate to 10°C while stirring carefully with a thermometer to obtain a third crop of crystals. Carefully observe their shapes and compare them with those of the first and second batches.
  • What compound is the third batch of crystals? Dispose of the chemicals in the designated receptacles.

Questions & Answers

what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
How can I make nanorobot?
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
how can I make nanorobot?
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Gen chem lab. OpenStax CNX. Oct 12, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10452/1.51
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