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In the second part of this experiment, you will study the effect of temperature on solubility. The effect that temperature has on solubility varies from salt to salt. We conclude that mixing solutions of KCl and NaNO 3 size 12{"NaNO" rSub { size 8{3} } } {} resulted in no reaction (see Equations 6 and 7). What would happen if we cooled such a mixture? The solution would eventually become saturated with respect to one of the salts, and crystals of that salt would begin to appear as its solubility was exceeded. Examination of Equation 6 reveals that crystals of any of the following salts could appear initially: KNO 3 size 12{"KNO" rSub { size 8{3} } } {} , KCl, NaNO 3 size 12{"NaNO" rSub { size 8{3} } } {} , or NaCl.Consequently, if a solution containing Na + size 12{"Na" rSup { size 8{+{}} } } {} , K + size 12{K rSup { size 8{+{}} } } {} , Cl size 12{"Cl" rSup { size 8{ - {}} } } {} , and NO 3 size 12{"NO" rSub { size 8{3} rSup { size 8{ - {}} } } } {} ions is evaporated at a given temperature, the solution becomes more and more concentrated and will eventually become saturated with respect to one of the four compounds. If a evaporation is continued, that compound will crystallize out, removing its' ions from solution. The other ions will remain in solution and increase in concentration. Before beginning this laboratory exercise you are to plot a graph of the solubilities of the four salts given in Table 3 on your report sheet.

Experimental procedure

Part 1: metathesis reactions

CAUTION WEAR EYE PROTECTION

  • The report sheet lists 16 pairs of chemicals that are to be mixed. Use about 1 mL of the reagents to be combined as indicated on the report sheet.
  • Mix the solutions in small test tubes and record your observations on the report sheet. If there is no reaction, write N.R. (The reactions need not be carried out in the order listed. In order to reduce congestion at the reagent shelf, half the class will start in reverse order). Dispose of the contents of your test tubes in the designated receptacles.

Part 2: solubility, temperature and crystallization

  • Place 8.5 g of sodium nitrate and 7.5 g of potassium chloride in a 100-mL beaker and add 25 mL of water. Warm the mixture on an hotplate, stirring, until the solids completely dissolve.
  • Assuming a volume of 25mL for the solution, calculate the molarity of the solution with respect to NaNO 3 size 12{"NaNO" rSub { size 8{3} } } {} , KCl, NaCl, and KNO 3 size 12{"KNO" rSub { size 8{3} } } {} , and record these molarities on your report form.
  • Cool the solution to about 10°C by placing the beaker in ice water in a 600-mL beaker and stir the solution carefully with a thermometer, being careful not to break it.
  • When no more crystals form, at approximately 10°C, filter the cold solution quickly and allow the filtrate to drain thoroughly into an evaporating dish. Dry the crystals between two dry pieces of filter paper or paper towels.
  • Examine the crystals with a magnifying glass (or fill a Florence flask with water and look at the crystals through it). Describe the shape of the crystals—that is, needles, cubes, plates, rhombs, and so forth on your report form.
  • Based upon your solubility graph, which compound crystallized out of solution and write that in the appropriate place on your report form
  • Evaporate the filtrate to about half of its volume using a Bunsen burner and ring stand. A second crop of crystals should form. Record the temperature and rapidly filter the hot solution, collecting the filtrate in a clean 100-mL beaker.
  • Dry the second batch of crystals between two pieces of filter paper and examine their shape. Compare their shape with the first batch of crystals.
  • Based upon your solubility graph, what is this substance?
  • Finally, cool the filtrate to 10°C while stirring carefully with a thermometer to obtain a third crop of crystals. Carefully observe their shapes and compare them with those of the first and second batches.
  • What compound is the third batch of crystals? Dispose of the chemicals in the designated receptacles.

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Gen chem lab. OpenStax CNX. Oct 12, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10452/1.51
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