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This module is from Elementary Algebra by Denny Burzynski and Wade Ellis, Jr. Operations with algebraic expressions and numerical evaluations are introduced in this chapter. Coefficients are described rather than merely defined. Special binomial products have both literal and symbolic explanations and since they occur so frequently in mathematics, we have been careful to help the student remember them. In each example problem, the student is "talked" through the symbolic form.Objectives of this module: be able to expand (a + b)^2, (a - b)^2, and (a + b)(a - b).

Overview

  • Expanding ( a + b ) 2 and ( a b ) 2
  • Expanding ( a + b ) ( a b )

Three binomial products occur so frequently in algebra that we designate them as special binomial products . We have seen them before (Sections [link] and [link] ), but we will study them again because of their importance as time saving devices and in solving equations (which we will study in a later chapter).

These special products can be shown as the squares of a binomial

( a + b ) 2      and      ( a b ) 2

and as the sum and difference of two terms .

( a + b ) ( a b )

There are two simple rules that allow us to easily expand (multiply out) these binomials. They are well worth memorizing, as they will save a lot of time in the future.

Expanding ( a + b ) 2 And ( a b ) 2

Squaring a binomial

To square a binomial: *

  1. Square the first term.
  2. Take the product of the two terms and double it.
  3. Square the last term.
  4. Add the three results together.

( a + b ) 2 = a 2 + 2 a b + b 2 ( a b ) 2 = a 2 2 a b + b 2

Expanding ( a + b ) ( a b )

Sum and difference of two terms

To expand the sum and difference of two terms:

  1. Square the first term and square the second term.
  2. Subtract the square of the second term from the square of the first term.

( a + b ) ( a b ) = a 2 b 2


* See problems 56 and 57 at the end of this section.
See problem 58.

Sample set a

( x + 4 ) 2 Square the first term:    x 2 . The product of both terms is 4 x . Double it:    8 x . Square the last term:   16 . Add them together:    x 2 + 8 x + 16. ( x + 4 ) 2 = x 2 + 8 x + 16

Note that ( x + 4 ) 2 x 2 + 4 2 . The 8 x term is missing!

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( a 8 ) 2 Square the first term:    a 2 . The product of both terms is 8 a . Double it:    16 a . Square the last term:    64. Add them together:    a 2 + ( 16 a ) + 64. ( a 8 ) 2 = a 2 16 a + 64

Notice that the sign of the last term in this expression is “ + .” This will always happen since the last term results from a number being squared . Any nonzero number times itself is always positive.

( + ) ( + ) = +    and    ( ) ( ) = +

The sign of the second term in the trinomial will always be the sign that occurs inside the parentheses.

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( y 1 ) 2 Square the first term:    y 2 . The product of both terms is y . Double it:    2 y . Square the last term:    + 1. Add them together:    y 2 + ( 2 y ) + 1.

The square of the binomial 'y minus one' is equal to y squared minus two y plus one. The sign inside the parentheses and the sign of the middle term of the trinomial are the same, and are labeled as 'minus.' The sign of the last term of the trinomial is labeled as 'plus.'

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( 5 x + 3 ) 2 Square the first term:    25 x 2 . The product of both terms is 15 x . Double it:    30 x . Square the last term:   9 . Add them together:    25 x 2 + 30 x + 9.

The square of the binomial 'five x plus three' is equal to twenty five x squared plus thirty x plus nine. The sign inside the parentheses and the sign of the middle term of the trinomial are the same, and are labeled as 'plus.' The sign of the last term of the trinomial is also labeled as 'plus.'

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( 7 b 2 ) 2 Square the first term:    49 b 2 . The product of both terms is 14 b . Double it:    28 b . Square the last term:   4 . Add them together:    49 b 2 + ( 28 b ) + 4.

The square of the binomial 'seven b minus two' is equal to forty-nine b squared minus twenty-eight b plus four. The sign inside the parentheses and the sign of the middle term of the trinomial are the same, and are labeled as 'minus.' The sign of the last term of the trinomial is labeled as 'plus.'

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( x + 6 ) ( x 6 ) Square the first term: x 2 . Subtract the square of the second term ( 36 ) from the square of the first term: x 2 36. ( x + 6 ) ( x 6 ) = x 2 36

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( 4 a 12 ) ( 4 a + 12 ) Square the first term: 16 a 2 . Subtract the square of the second term ( 144 ) from the square of the first term: 16 a 2 144. ( 4 a 12 ) ( 4 a + 12 ) = 16 a 2 144

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( 6 x + 8 y ) ( 6 x 8 y ) Square the first term: 36 x 2 . Subtract the square of the second term ( 64 y 2 ) from the square of the first term: 36 x 2 64 y 2 . ( 6 x + 8 y ) ( 6 x 8 y ) = 36 x 2 64 y 2

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Practice set a

Find the following products.

( x + 5 ) 2

x 2 + 10 x + 25

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( x + 7 ) 2

x 2 + 14 x + 49

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( y 6 ) 2

y 2 12 y + 36

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( 3 a + b ) 2

9 a 2 + 6 a b + b 2

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( 9 m n ) 2

81 m 2 18 m n + n 2

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( 10 x 2 y ) 2

100 x 2 40 x y + 4 y 2

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( 12 a 7 b ) 2

144 a 2 168 a b + 49 b 2

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( 5 h 15 k ) 2

25 h 2 150 h k + 225 k 2

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Exercises

For the following problems, find the products.

( x + 3 ) 2

x 2 + 6 x + 9

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( x + 8 ) 2

x 2 + 16 x + 64

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( y + 9 ) 2

y 2 + 18 y + 81

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( a 4 ) 2

a 2 8 a + 16

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( a 7 ) 2

a 2 14 a + 49

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( b + 15 ) 2

b 2 + 30 b + 225

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( x 12 ) 2

x 2 24 x + 144

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( y 20 ) 2

y 2 40 y + 400

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( 4 x + 2 ) 2

16 x 2 + 16 x + 4

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( 7 x 2 ) 2

49 x 2 28 x + 4

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( 3 a 9 ) 2

9 a 2 54 a + 81

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( 5 a 3 b ) 2

25 a 2 30 a b + 9 b 2

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( 2 h 8 k ) 2

4 h 2 32 h k + 64 k 2

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( a + 1 3 ) 2

a 2 + 2 3 a + 1 9

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( x + 2 5 ) 2

x 2 + 4 5 x + 4 25

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( y 5 6 ) 2

y 2 5 3 y + 25 36

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( x + 1.3 ) 2

x 2 + 2.6 x + 1.69

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( a + 0.5 ) 2

a 2 + a + 0.25

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( x 3.1 ) 2

x 2 6.2 x + 9.61

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( b 0.04 ) 2

b 2 0.08 b + 0.0016

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( x + 5 ) ( x 5 )

x 2 25

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( x + 1 ) ( x 1 )

x 2 1

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( f + 9 ) ( f 9 )

f 2 81

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( 2 y + 3 ) ( 2 y 3 )

4 y 2 9

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( 5 x + 6 ) ( 5 x 6 )

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( 2 a 7 b ) ( 2 a + 7 b )

4 a 2 49 b 2

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( 7 x + 3 t ) ( 7 x 3 t )

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( 5 h 2 k ) ( 5 h + 2 k )

25 h 2 4 k 2

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( x + 1 3 ) ( x 1 3 )

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( a + 2 9 ) ( a 2 9 )

a 2 4 81

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( x + 7 3 ) ( x 7 3 )

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( 2 b + 6 7 ) ( 2 b 6 7 )

4 b 2 36 49

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Expand ( a + b ) 2 to prove it is equal to a 2 + 2 a b + b 2 .

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Expand ( a b ) 2 to prove it is equal to a 2 2 a b + b 2 .

( a b ) ( a b ) = a 2 a b a b + b 2 = a 2 2 a b + b 2

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Expand ( a + b ) ( a b ) to prove it is equal to a 2 b 2 .

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Fill in the missing label in the equation below.

The square of the binomial 'a plus b' is equal to a squared plus two ab plus b squared. Fill in the missing labels for the equation. See the longdesc for a full description.

first term squared

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Label the parts of the equation below.

The square of the binomial 'a minus b' is equal to a squared minus two ab plus b squared. Fill in the missing labels for the equation. See the longdesc for a full description.

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Label the parts of the equation below.

The product of the binomial 'a plus b' and the binomial 'a minus b' is equal to a squared minus b squared. Fill in the missing labels for the equation. See the longdesc for a full description.

(a) Square the first term.
(b) Square the second term and subtract it from the first term.

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Exercises for review

( [link] ) Simplify ( x 3 y 0 z 4 ) 5 .

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( [link] ) Find the value of 10 1 2 3 .

1 80

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( [link] ) Find the product. ( x + 6 ) ( x 7 ) .

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( [link] ) Find the product. ( 5 m 3 ) ( 2 m + 3 ) .

10 m 2 + 9 m 9

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( [link] ) Find the product. ( a + 4 ) ( a 2 2 a + 3 ) .

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Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
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why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
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Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
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Source:  OpenStax, Elementary algebra. OpenStax CNX. May 08, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10614/1.3
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