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This module is from Elementary Algebra by Denny Burzynski and Wade Ellis, Jr. The basic operations with real numbers are presented in this chapter. The concept of absolute value is discussed both geometrically and symbolically. The geometric presentation offers a visual understanding of the meaning of |x|. The symbolic presentation includes a literal explanation of how to use the definition. Negative exponents are developed, using reciprocals and the rules of exponents the student has already learned. Scientific notation is also included, using unique and real-life examples.Objectives of this module: be able to add numbers with like signs and unlike signs, understand addition with zero.

Overview

  • Addition of Numbers with Like Signs
  • Addition with Zero
  • Addition of Numbers with Unlike Signs

Addition of numbers with like signs

Let us add the two positive numbers 2 and 3. We perform this addition on the number line as follows.

We begin at 0, the origin.
Since 2 is positive, we move 2 units to the right.
Since 3 is positive, we move 3 more units to the right.
We are now located at 5.
Thus, 2 + 3 = 5 .

A number line with arrows on each end, labeled from negative two to eight in increments of one. There is a curved arrow starting from zero, and pointing towards two. There is another curved arrow starting from two, and pointing towards five.

Summarizing, we have

( 2 positive units ) + ( 3 positive units ) = ( 5 positive units )

Now let us add the two negative numbers 2 and 3 . We perform this addition on the number line as follows.

We begin at 0, the origin.
Since 2 is negative, we move 2 units to the left.
Since 3 is negative, we move 3 more units to the left.
We are now located at 5 .

Thus, ( 2 ) + ( 3 ) = 5 .

A number line with arrows on each end, labeled from negative seven to three in increments of one. There is a curved arrow starting from zero, and pointing towards negative two. There is another curved arrow starting from negative two, and pointing towards negative five

Summarizing, we have

( 2 negative units ) + ( 3 negative units ) = ( 5 negative units )

These two examples suggest that

( positive number ) + ( positive number ) = ( positive number ) ( negative number ) + ( negative number ) = ( negative number )

Adding numbers with the same sign

To add two real numbers that have the same sign, add the absolute values of the numbers and associate the common sign with the sum.

Sample set a

Find the sums.

3 + 7

Add these absolute values . | 3 | = 3 | 7 | = 7 } 3 + 7 = 10 The common sign is "+ ."

3 + 7 = + 10 or 3 + 7 = 10

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( 4 ) + ( 9 )

Add these absolute values . | 4 | = 4 | 9 | = 9 } 4 + 9 = 13 The common sign is " ."

( 4 ) + ( 9 ) = 13

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Practice set a

Find the sums.

( 4 ) + ( 8 )

12

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( 36 ) + ( 9 )

45

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14 + ( 20 )

34

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2 3 + ( 5 3 )

7 3

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2.8 + ( 4.6 )

7.4

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Addition with zero

Notice that

Addition with 0

( 0 ) + ( a positive number ) = ( that same positive number ) ( 0 ) + ( a negative number ) = ( that same negative number)

The additive identity is 0

Since adding 0 to a real number leaves that number unchanged, 0 is called the additive identity .

Addition of numbers with unlike signs

Now let us perform the addition 2 + ( 6 ) . These two numbers have unlike signs. This type of addition can also be illustrated using the number line.

We begin at 0, the origin.
Since 2 is positive, we move 2 units to the right.
Since 6 is negative, we move, from the 2, 6 units to the left.
We are now located at 4 .

A number line with arrows on each end, labeled from negative five to five in increments of one. There is a curved arrow starting from zero, and pointing towards two. There is another curved arrow starting from two, and pointing towards negative four.

A rule for adding two numbers that have unlike signs is suggested by noting that if the signs are disregarded, 4 can be obtained from 2 and 6 by subtracting 2 from 6. But 2 and 6 are precisely the absolute values of 2 and 6 . Also, notice that the sign of the number with the larger absolute value is negative and that the sign of the resulting sum is negative.

Adding numbers with unlike signs

To add two real numbers that have unlike signs, subtract the smaller absolute value from the larger absolute value and associate the sign of the number with the larger absolute value with this difference.

Sample set b

Find the following sums.

7 + ( 2 )

| 7 | = 7 Larger absolute value . Sign is " + " . | 2 | = 2 Smaller absolute value .

Subtract absolute values: 7 2 = 5. Attach the proper sign: " + " .

7 + ( 2 ) = + 5 or 7 + ( 2 ) = 5

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3 + ( 11 )

| 3 | = 3 Smaller absolute value . | 11 | = 11 Larger absolute value . Sign is " " .

Subtract absolute values: 11 3 = 8. Attach the proper sign: " " .

3 + ( 11 ) = 8

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The morning temperature on a winter's day in Lake Tahoe was 12 degrees. The afternoon temperature was 25 degrees warmer. What was the afternoon temperature?

We need to find 12 + 25 .

| 12 | = 12 Smaller absolute value . | 25 | = 25 Larger absolute value . Sign is "+" .

Subtract absolute values: 25 12 = 13. Attach the proper sign: " + " .

12 + 25 = 13

Thus, the afternoon temperature is 13 degrees.

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Use a calculator. Add 147 + 84 .                                                      Display Reads

Type 147 147 Press + / 147 Press + 147 Type 84 84 Press = 63

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Practice set b

Find the sums.

1345.6 + ( 6648.1 )

7993.7

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Exercises

Find the sums for the the following problems.

( 3 ) + ( 12 )

15

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( 4 ) + ( 8 )

12

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( 16 ) + ( 8 )

24

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( 3 ) + ( 12 )

15

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9 + ( 6 )

15

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16 + ( 9 )

25

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5 + ( 12 ) + ( 4 )

21

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1221 + ( 44 )

1265

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47.03 + ( 22.71 )

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1.998 + ( 4.086 )

6.084

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[ ( 3 ) + ( 4 ) ] + [ ( 6 ) + ( 1 ) ]

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[ ( 2 ) + ( 8 ) ] + [ ( 3 ) + ( 7 ) ]

20

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[ ( 3 ) + ( 8 ) ] + [ ( 6 ) + ( 12 ) ]

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[ ( 8 ) + ( 6 ) ] + [ ( 2 ) + ( 1 ) ]

17

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[ 4 + ( 12 ) ] + [ 12 + ( 3 ) ]

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[ 5 + ( 16 ) ] + [ 4 + ( 11 ) ]

18

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[ 2 + ( 4 ) ] + [ 17 + ( 19 ) ]

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[ 10 + ( 6 ) ] + [ 12 + ( 2 ) ]

14

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14 + [ ( 3 ) + 5 ]

16

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[ 2 + ( 7 ) ] + ( 11 )

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[ 14 + ( 8 ) ] + ( 2 )

4

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In order for a small business to break even on a project, it must have sales of $ 21 , 000 . If the amount of sales was $ 15 , 000 , how much money did this company fall short?

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Suppose a person has $ 56.00 in his checking account. He deposits $ 100.00 into his checking account by using the automatic teller machine. He then writes a check for $ 84.50 . If an error causes the deposit not to be listed into this person's account, what is this person's checking balance?

$ 28.50

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A person borrows $ 7.00 on Monday and then $ 12.00 on Tuesday. How much has this person borrowed?

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A person borrows $ 11.00 on Monday and then pays back $ 8.00 on Tuesday. How much does this person owe?

$ 3.00

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Exercises for review

( [link] ) Simplify 4 ( 7 2 6 2 3 ) 2 2 .

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( [link] ) Simplify 35 a 6 b 2 c 5 7 b 2 c 4 .

5 a 6 c

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( [link] ) Simplify ( 12 a 8 b 5 4 a 5 b 2 ) 3 .

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( [link] ) Determine the value of | 8 | .

8

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( [link] ) Determine the value of ( | 2 | + | 4 | 2 ) + | 5 | 2 .

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Questions & Answers

Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
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RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
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Professor
I think
Professor
what is the stm
Brian Reply
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industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
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scanning tunneling microscope
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write examples of Nano molecule?
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The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
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nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
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Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
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yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
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biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
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research.net
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Source:  OpenStax, Elementary algebra. OpenStax CNX. May 08, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10614/1.3
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