# 0.3 The periodic table  (Page 4/5)

 Page 4 / 5

A change in the number of electrons of an atom does not change the type of atom that it is. However, the charge of the atom will change. If electrons are added, then the atom will become more negative . If electrons are taken away, then the atom will become more positive . The atom that is formed in either of these cases is called an ion . Put simply, an ion is a charged atom.

Ion

An ion is a charged atom. A positively charged ion is called a cation e.g. ${\mathrm{Na}}^{+}$ , and a negatively charged ion is called an anion e.g. ${\mathrm{F}}^{-}$ . The charge on an ion depends on the number of electrons that have been lost or gained.

But how do we know how many electrons an atom will gain or lose? Remember what we said about stability? We said that all atoms are trying to get a full outer shell. For the elements on the left hand side of the periodic table the easiest way to do this is to lose electrons and for the elements on the right of the periodic table the easiest way to do this is to gain electrons. So the elements on the left of the periodic table will form cations and the elements on the right hand side of the periodic table will form anions. By doing this the elements can be in the most stable electronic configuration and so be as stable as the noble gases.

Look at the following examples. Notice the number of valence electrons in the neutral atom, the number of electrons that are lost or gained and the final charge of the ion that is formed.

## Lithium

A lithium atom loses one electron to form a positive ion: In this example, the lithium atom loses an electron to form the cation ${\mathrm{Li}}^{+}$ .

## Fluorine

A fluorine atom gains one electron to form a negative ion:

You should have noticed in both these examples that each element lost or gained electrons to make a full outer shell.

## Investigation : the formation of ions

1. Use the diagram for lithium as a guide and draw similar diagrams to show how each of the following ions is formed:
1. ${\mathrm{Mg}}^{2+}$
2. ${\mathrm{Na}}^{+}$
3. ${\mathrm{Cl}}^{-}$
4. ${\mathrm{O}}^{2+}$
2. Do you notice anything interesting about the charge on each of these ions? Hint: Look at the number of valence electrons in the neutral atom and the charge on the final ion.

## Observations:

Once you have completed the activity, you should notice that:
• In each case the number of electrons that is either gained or lost, is the same as the number of electrons that are needed for the atoms to achieve a full outer energy level.
• If you look at an energy level diagram for sodium ( $\mathrm{Na}$ ), you will see that in a neutral atom, there is only one valence electron. In order to achieve a full outer energy level, and therefore a more stable state for the atom, this electron will be lost .
• In the case of oxygen ( $\mathrm{O}$ ), there are six valence electrons. To achieve a full energy level, it makes more sense for this atom to gain two electrons. A negative ion is formed.

## Exercise: the formation of ions

Match the information in column A with the information in column B by writing only the letter (A to I) next to the question number (1 to 7)

 1. A positive ion that has 3 less electrons than its neutral atom A. ${\mathrm{Mg}}^{2+}$ 2. An ion that has 1 more electron than its neutral atom B. ${\mathrm{Cl}}^{-}$ 3. The anion that is formed when bromine gains an electron C. ${\mathrm{CO}}_{3}^{2-}$ 4. The cation that is formed from a magnesium atom D. ${\mathrm{Al}}^{3+}$ 5. An example of a compound ion E. ${\mathrm{Br}}^{2-}$ 6. A positive ion with the electron configuration of argon F. ${\mathrm{K}}^{+}$ 7. A negative ion with the electron configuration of neon G. ${\mathrm{Mg}}^{+}$ H. ${\mathrm{O}}^{2-}$ I. ${\mathrm{Br}}^{-}$

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
what about nanotechnology for water purification
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
why?
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
What makes metals better to use as wires than non-metals? (please link to bonding type)??? HELP